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Table 3 Effects of different frequencies of interventions

From: Counselling interventions to enable women to initiate and continue breastfeeding: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Frequency of intervention Number of trials No of events Effect Certainty
Intervention Control Relative (95% CI) Absolute (95% CI)
Number of women who do not initiate breastfeeding within 1 h of birth
 < 4 times 1 trial 35/108 (32.4%) 58/86 (67.4%) RR 0.48 (0.35 to 0.65) 351 fewer per 1000 (from 236 fewer to 438 fewer) Very low
 ≥ 4 times 6 trials 1003/1805 (55.6%) 1130/1732 (65.2%) RR 0.79 (0.57 to 1.08) 137 fewer per 1000 (from 52 more to 281 fewer) Low
Number of women who stop any breastfeeding before 4–6 weeks postpartum
 < 4 times 14 trials (15 comparisons) 733/2129 (34.4%) 725/2050 (35.4%) RR 0.95 (0.84 to 1.07) 18 fewer per 1000 (from 25 more to 57 fewer) Low
 ≥ 4 times 15 trials 463/1865 (24.8%) 533/1661 (32.1%) RR 0.77 (0.66 to 0.90) 74 fewer per 1000 (from 32 fewer to 109 fewer) Low
Number of women who stop any breastfeeding before 6 months postpartum
 < 4 times 13 trials (14 comparisons) 1599/2675 (59.8%) 1029/1720 (59.8%) RR 0.96 (0.92 to 1.01) 24 fewer per 1000 (from 6 more to 48 fewer) Moderate
 ≥ 4 times 16 trials 882/1785 (49.4%) 1002/1790 (56.0%) RR 0.85 (0.75 to 0.96) 84 fewer per 1000 (from 22 fewer to 140 fewer) Low
Number of women who stop exclusive breastfeeding before 4–6 weeks postpartum
 < 4 times 15 trials (16 comparisons) 1178/1971 (59.8%) 1036/1629 (63.6%) RR 0.92 (0.88 to 0.97) 51 fewer per 1000 (from 19 fewer to 76 fewer) Moderate
 ≥ 4 times 19 trials (20 comparisons) 1136/2366 (48.0%) 1388/2140 (64.9%) RR 0.69 (0.58 to 0.82) 201 fewer per 1000 (from 117 fewer to 272 fewer) Low
Number of women who stop exclusive breastfeeding before 6 months postpartum
 < 4 times 12 trials (13 comparisons) 1444/1682 (85.9%) 1326/1471 (90.1%) RR 0.96 (0.94 to 0.98) 36 fewer per 1000 (from 18 fewer to 54 fewer) Moderate
 ≥ 4 times 22 trials (23 comparisons) 2369/3709 (63.9%) 3077/3683 (83.5%) RR 0.76 (0.66 to 0.88) 201 fewer per 1000 (from 100 fewer to 284 fewer) Low
Number of infants fed with bottles during the first 6 months postpartum
 < 4 times 4 trials 292/554 (52.7%) 324/546 (59.3%) RR 0.91 (0.82 to 1.01) 53 fewer per 1000 (from 6 more to 107 fewer) Moderate
 ≥ 4 times 1 trial 111/175 (63.4%) 144/175 (82.3%) RR 0.77 (0.68 to 0.88) 189 fewer per 1000 (from 99 fewer to 263 fewer) High