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Table 2 Effects of different timings of interventions

From: Counselling interventions to enable women to initiate and continue breastfeeding: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Time intervention delivered Number of trials No of events Effect Certainty
Intervention Control Relative (95% CI) Absolute (95% CI)
Number of women who do not initiate breastfeeding within 1 h of birth
 Antenatal only 1 trial 35/108 (32.4%) 58/86 (67.4%) RR 0.48 (0.35 to 0.65) 351 fewer per 1000 (from 236 fewer to 438 fewer) Low
 Antenatal and postnatal 6 trials 1003/1805 (55.6%) 1130/1732 (65.2%) RR 0.79 (0.57 to 1.08) 137 fewer per 1000 (from 52 more to 281 fewer) Low
Number of women who stop any breastfeeding before 4–6 weeks postpartum
 Antenatal only 6 trials 319/782 (40.8%) 338/707 (47.8%) RR 0.86 (0.72 to 1.03) 67 fewer per 1000 (from 14 more to 134 fewer) Low
 Postnatal only 12 trials (13 comparisons) 461/2039 (22.6%) 467/1838 (25.4%) RR 0.83 (0.69 to 1.00) 43 fewer per 1000 (from 0 fewer to 79 fewer) Low
 Antenatal and postnatal 11 trials 416/1173 (35.5%) 453/1166 (38.9%) RR 0.91 (0.78 to 1.05) 35 fewer per 1000 (from 19 more to 85 fewer) Moderate
Number of women who stop any breastfeeding before 6 months postpartum
 Antenatal only 6 trials 545/782 (69.7%) 526/707 (74.4%) RR 0.93 (0.88 to 0.98) 52 fewer per 1000 (from 15 fewer to 89 fewer) Moderate
 Postnatal only 18 trials (19 comparisons) 2188/4083 (53.6%) 1286/2546 (50.5%) RR 0.96 (0.88 to 1.04) 20 fewer per 1000 (from 20 more to 61 fewer) Low
 Antenatal and postnatal 6 trials 334/547 (61.1%) 407/541 (75.2%) RR 0.79 (0.67 to 0.93) 158 fewer per 1000 (from 53 fewer to 248 fewer) Low
Number of women who stop exclusive breastfeeding before 4–6 weeks postpartum
 Antenatal only 6 trials 450/704 (63.9%) 399/570 (70.0%) RR 0.95 (0.89 to 1.02) 35 fewer per 1000 (from 14 more to 77 fewer) Moderate
 Postnatal only 12 trials (13 comparisons) 1009/1943 (51.9%) 935/1503 (62.2%) RR 0.71 (0.59 to 0.85) 180 fewer per 1000 (from 93 fewer to 255 fewer) Low
 Antenatal and postnatal 16 trials (17 comparisons) 855/1690 (50.6%) 1090/1696 (64.3%) RR 0.81 (0.69 to 0.94) 122 fewer per 1000 (from 39 fewer to 199 fewer) Low
Number of women who stop exclusive breastfeeding before 6 months postpartum
 Antenatal only 5 trials 601/671 (89.6%) 494/535 (92.3%) RR 0.98 (0.96 to 1.01) 18 fewer per 1000 (from 9 more to 37 fewer) Moderate
 Postnatal only 16 trials 1483/2002 (74.1%) 1575/1926 (81.8%) RR 0.88 (0.81 to 0.96) 98 fewer per 1000 (from 33 fewer to 155 fewer) Low
 Antenatal and postnatal 15 trials 1663/2718 (61.2%) 2334/2693 (86.7%) RR 0.71 (0.55 to 0.93) 251 fewer per 1000 (from 61 fewer to 390 fewer) Low
Number of infants fed with bottles during the first 6 months postpartum
 Postnatal only 3 trials 143/331 (43.2%) 188/328 (57.3%) RR 0.77 (0.68 to 0.87) 132 fewer per 1000 (from 75 fewer to 183 fewer) Moderate
 Antenatal and postnatal 2 trials 260/398 (65.3%) 280/393 (71.2%) RR 0.92 (0.85 to 1.00) 57 fewer per 1000 (from 0 fewer to 107 fewer) Moderate