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Table 4 Determinants of exclusive breastfeeding in Ethiopia, 2000–2016

From: Trends and determinants of early initiation of breastfeeding and exclusive breastfeeding in Ethiopia from 2000 to 2016

Variables 2000 2005 2011 2016 2000–2016 p for trend
aaOR (95% CI) aaOR (95% CI) aaOR (95% CI) aaOR (95% CI) aaOR (95% CI)
Socioeconomic factors
 Maternal education
  No schooling 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 P < 0.001
  Primary school 0.89 (0.49, 1.59) 0.89 (0.53, 1.48) 0.90 (0.62, 1.33) 1.39 (0.88, 2.19) 0.98 (0.81, 1.20) P = 0.003
  Secondary and higher 0.61 (0.19, 1.89) 0.69 (0.25, 1.95) 1.47 (0.59, 3.64) 1.48 (0.74, 2.97) 0.99 (0.68, 1.44) P = 0.001
 Maternal employment
  No employment 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 P < 0.001
  Formal employment 1.56 (0.76, 3.20) 0.53 (0.25, 1.11) 1.03 (0.63, 1.69) 0.99 (0.58, 1.67) 0.94 (0.72, 1.21) P = 0.004
  Informal employment 1.71 (1.17, 2.49) 1.06 (0.66, 1.71) 1.27 (0.89, 1.82) 1.14 (0.74, 1.75) 1.37 (1.15, 1.63) P = 0.011
 Household wealth index
  Poor 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 P = 0.001
  Middle 0.72 (0.47, 1.09) 1.93 (1.22, 3.06) 1.43 (0.97, 2.12) 1.03 (0.61, 1.72) 1.21 (1.04, 1.53) P < 0.001
  Rich 1.00 (0.67, 1.48) 1.54 (0.99, 2.38) 1.02 (0.65, 1.59) 0.85 (0.51, 1.42) 1.20 (0.99, 1.45) P < 0.001
Demographic factors
 Maternal age
  15–24 years 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 P < 0.001
  25–34 years 0.81 (0.52, 1.26) 1.03 (0.66, 1.60) 0.86 (0.59, 1.25) 1.04 (0.68, 1.59) 0.87 (0.72, 1.05) P < 0.001
  35–49 years 0.97 (0.51, 1.82) 1.13 (0.60, 2.11) 0.80 (0.47, 1.37) 1.22 (0.64, 2.33) 0.91 (0.69, 1.20) P = 0.653
 Birth order
  One 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 P < 0.001
  2–4 0.70 (0.42, 1.27) 0.83 (0.49, 1.41) 0.99 (0.62, 1.57) 1.34 (0.84, 2.13) 0.95 (0.76, 1.20) P < 0.001
  5+ 0.55 (0.29, 1.04) 0.96 (0.50, 1.87) 0.71 (0.40, 1.26) 1.09 (0.56, 2.10) 0.85 (0.63, 1.15) P = 0.035
 Family size
   ≤ 3 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 P = 0.001
  4–5 1.89 (1.00, 3.55) 1.32 (0.72, 2.41) 1.86 (1.09, 3.17) 1.01 (0.55, 1.85) 1.36 (1.04, 1.79) P < 0.001
  6+ 2.61 (1.38, 4.94) 1.19 (0.63, 2.25) 2.09 (1.18, 3.67) 1.01 (0.54, 1.89) 1.46 (1.10, 1.93) P < 0.001
 Listening radio
  No 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 P < 0.001
  Yes 1.00 (0.67, 1.52) 0.81 (0.56, 1.17) 1.10 (0.80, 1.52) 0.72 (0.47, 1.10) 0.90 (0.76, 1.06) P < 0.001
Health service factors
 Antenatal visit
  None 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 P = 0.018
  1–3 visits 0.69 (0.45, 1.08) 0.97 (0.66, 1.43) 0.93 (0.64, 1.35) 1.63 (1.06, 2.49) 0.97 (0.80, 1.17) P < 0.001
  4+ visits 0.86 (0.44, 1.71) 0.71 (0.39, 1.28) 0.77 (0.45, 1.30) 2.26 (1.46, 3.50) 1.01 (0.79, 1.30) P < 0.001
 Timing of postnatal checkup
  None 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 P = 0.145
  Within a week 0.67 (0.33, 1.33) 1.11 (0.43, 2.85) 1.25 (0.29, 5.31) 0.92 (0.40, 2.10) 0.84 (0.57, 1.22)
  After a week 0.76 (0.23, 2.47) 0.87 (0.30, 2.49) 0.81 (0.23, 2.84) 0.54 (0.23, 1.29) 0.69 (0.41, 1.16) P < 0.001
Community level factors
 Place of residence
  Urban 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 P < 0.001
  Rural 0.77 (0.40, 1.49) 0.81 (0.38, 1.70) 1.01 (0.51, 2.00) 1.32 (0.76, 2.31) 1.08 (0.80, 1.45) P < 0.001
 Region of residence
  Large central regions 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 P < 0.001
  Small peripheral regions 0.24 (0.16, 0.38) 0.30 (0.19, 0.49) 0.27 (0.18, 0.40) 0.66 (0.44, 0.90) 0.37 (0.31, 0.45) P = 0.015
  Metropolis 0.16 (0.09, 0.30) 0.37 (0.18, 0.76) 0.56 (0.33, 0.95) 0.83 (0.54, 1.28) 0.46 (0.36, 0.58) P < 0.001
  1. aaORs of socioeconomic factors were adjusted for demographic, health service and community level factors; aORs of demographic factors were adjusted for socioeconomic, health service and community level factors; aORs of health service factors were adjusted for socioeconomic, demographic, and community level factors; aORs of community level factors were adjusted for socioeconomic, demographic, and health service