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Table 3 Determinants of early initiation of breastfeeding in Ethiopia, 2000–2016

From: Trends and determinants of early initiation of breastfeeding and exclusive breastfeeding in Ethiopia from 2000 to 2016

Variables 2000 2005 2011 2016 2000–2016 p for trend
aaOR (95% CI) aaOR (95% CI) aaOR (95% CI) aaOR (95% CI) aaOR (95% CI)
Socioeconomic factors
 Maternal education
  No schooling 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 P < 0.001
  Primary school 0.88 (0.67, 1.15) 0.96 (0.73, 1.25) 1.00 (0.81, 1.24) 1.15 (0.90, 1.47) 0.99 (0.89, 1.11) P < 0.001
  Secondary and higher 0.83 (0.50, 1.38) 1.24 (0.72, 2.13) 1.27 (0.81, 2.00) 1.30 (0.87, 1.93) 1.05 (0.85, 1.30) P < 0.001
 Partner education
  No schooling 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 P < 0.001
  Primary school 1.24 (0.99, 1.56) 0.96 (0.76, 1.20) 1.06 (0.89, 1.27) 1.05 (0.81, 1.34) 1.14 (1.03, 1.26) P < 0.001
  Secondary and higher 1.04 (0.73, 1.46) 0.92 (0.64, 1.33) 0.89 (0.65, 1.24) 0.98 (0.71, 1.35) 1.01 (0.86, 1.19) P < 0.001
 Maternal employment
  No employment 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 P < 0.001
  Formal employment 1.00 (0.72, 1.39) 0.72 (0.52, 0.98) 0.82 (0.65, 1.03) 1.54 (1.07, 2.21) 0.94 (0.82, 1.07) P < 0.001
  Informal employment 0.79 (0.64, 0.98) 0.71 (0.54, 0.93) 0.74 (0.61, 0.90) 1.00 (0.79, 1.28) 0.75 (0.68, 0.83) P < 0.001
 Household wealth index
  Poor 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 P < 0.001
  Middle 1.00 (0.86, 1.18) 1.02 (0.80, 1.29) 1.04 (0.85, 1.27) 1.19 (0.87, 1.62) 1.08 (0.97, 1.21) P < 0.001
  Rich 0.99 (0.80, 1.23) 0.97 (0.74, 1.28) 1.22 (0.98, 1.53) 1.20 (0.87, 1.65) 1.13 (1.01, 1.26) P < 0.001
Demographic factors
 Maternal age
  15–24 years 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 P < 0.001
  25–34 years 1.14 (0.94, 1.38) 1.05 (0.85, 1.29) 1.16 (0.96, 1.41) 1.20 (0.94, 1.52) 1.12 (1.02, 1.23) P < 0.001
  35–49 years 1.08 (0.84, 1.38) 0.99 (0.75, 1.31) 1.29 (0.99, 1.68) 1.26 (0.91, 1.74) 1.13 (0.99,1.27) P < 0.001
 Sex of the baby
  Male 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 P < 0.001
  Female 1.00 (0.86, 1.18) 0.99 (0.84, 1.19) 1.14 (0.98, 1.32) 1.21 (1.01, 1.45) 1.08 (1.00, 1.16) P < 0.001
 Desire for pregnancy
  Desired the pregnancy 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 P < 0.001
  Not desired the pregnancy 0.83 (0.67, 1.04) 0.82 (0.0.64, 1.06) 0.69 (0.52, 0.91) 1.10 (0.66, 1.84) 0.81 (0.71, 0.91) P < 0.001
Health service factors
 Antenatal care visit
  None 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 P = 0.001
  1–3 visits 0.71 (0.56, 0.91) 0.65 (0.51, 0.84) 0.98 (0.81, 1.18) 0.82 (0.63, 1.06) 0.77 (0.70, 0.86) P < 0.001
  4+ visits 0.76 (0.54, 1.05) 0.51 (0.37, 0.69) 0.94 (0.73, 1.21) 0.75 (0.57, 0.98) 0.74 (0.65, 0.85) P < 0.001
 Place of birth
  Home 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 P = 0.695
  Health facility 0.97 (0.57, 1.66) 0.79 (0.46, 1.33) 1.16 (0.53, 2.56) 2.03 (1.04, 4.00) 1.35 (1.05, 1.75) P < 0.001
 Mode of delivery
  Vaginal birthing 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 P < 0.001
  Cesarean section 0.42 (0.20, 0.92) 0.30 (0.15, 0.58) 0.19 (0.11, 0.35) 0.10 (0.05, 0.16) 0.22 (0.17, 0.30) P < 0.001
Community factors
 Region of residence
  Large central regions 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 P < 0.001
  Small peripheral regions 1.24 (0.93, 1.66) 2.39 (1.72, 3.32) 1.03 (0.81, 1.30) 0.82 (0.63, 1.07) 1.13 (0.99, 1.29) P = 0.006
  Metropolis 1.81 (1.31, 2.50) 3.03 (1.93, 4.75) 2.13 (1.60, 2.84) 2.65 (1.79, 3.93) 1.95 (1.65, 2.32) P < 0.001
  1. aaORs of socioeconomic factors were adjusted for demographic, health service and community level factors; aORs of demographic factors were adjusted for socioeconomic, health service and community level factors; aORs of health service factors were adjusted for socioeconomic, demographic, and community level factors; aORs of community level factors were adjusted for socioeconomic, demographic, and health service