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Table 2 Prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding by study factors in Ethiopia, 2000–2016

From: Trends and determinants of early initiation of breastfeeding and exclusive breastfeeding in Ethiopia from 2000 to 2016

Variables 2000 2005 2011 2016 2000–2016
n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%)
Socioeconomic factors
 Maternal education
  No schooling 489 (56.2) 454 (51) 434 (53.7) 392 (60.1) 1769 (54.9)
  Primary school 71 (51.5) 96 (46.5) 184 (49.1) 101 (60.7) 552 (52.6)
  Secondary and higher 21 (36.0) 10 (21.6) 30 (48.0) 64 (59.9) 125 (44.7)
 Maternal employment
  No employment 207 (49.2) 451 (49.0) 329 (49.5) 395 (56.8) 1382 (51.2)
  Formal employment 44 (48.6) 15 (27.4) 79 (44.1) 82 (66.3) 221 (49.1)
  Informal employment 330 (59.5) 93 (56.3) 235 (59.7) 180 (65.0) 838 (60.2)
 Partner education
  No schooling 352 (56.6) 322 (49.9) 313 (54.5) 316 (62.4) 1302 (55.5)
  Primary school 157 (53.1) 180 (51.1) 275 (52.4) 226 (58.4) 837 (53.8)
  Secondary and higher 62 (48.0) 52 (41.0) 43 (34.1) 96 (59.3) 254 (46.5)
 Household wealth status
  Poor 204 (57.4) 202 (44.3) 292 (51.9) 321 (61.4) 1019 (53.7)
  Middle 143 (49.4) 151 (58.9) 168 (59.4) 115 (56.7) 576 (56.0)
  Rich 235 (55.6) 207 (49.1) 189 (46.9) 221 (59.7) 852 (52.4)
Demographic factors
 Maternal age
  15–24 years 225 (54.9) 209 (47.8) 204 (47.7) 220 (59.6) 857 (52.2)
  25–34 years 257 (53.4) 237 (46.7) 313 (54.8) 320 (60.1) 1126 (53.8)
  35–49 years 100 (56.7) 114 (57.6) 132 (53.0) 118 (60.1) 464 (56.6)
 Child sex
  Male 284 (51.5) 303 (49.0) 323 (48.2) 316 (58.2) 1226 (51.5)
  Female 298 (57.8) 256 (48.9) 326 (56.4) 341 (61.6) 1221 (56.3)
 Birth order
  One 88 (48.4) 98 (45.9) 108 (46.8) 135 (51.0) 429 (48.2)
  2–4 254 (53.5 250 (47.6) 289 (53.01) 293 (65.5) 1087 (54.5)
  5+ 239 (58.4) 212 (52.5) 252 (53.4) 229 (60.0) 931 (55.8)
 Family size
   ≤ 3 46 (41.0) 54 (46.5) 52 (41.2) 50 (46.3) 202 (43.6)
  4–5 179 (52.4) 184 (47.8) 211 (52.5) 235 (65.6) 808 (54.4)
  6+ 367 (58.2) 322 (50.2) 386 (53.6) 372 (59) 1437 (55.2)
 Desire for pregnancy
  Desired the pregnancy 457 (53.3) 439 (46.9) 569 (51.8) 625 (62.0) 2090 (53.6)
  Not desired the pregnancy 124 (59.4) 121 (58.4) 80 (53.4) 32 (36.5) 357 (54.7)
 Listening radio
  No 442 (55.4) 371 (51.2) 311 (52.5) 492 (61.3) 1617 (55.4)
  Yes 139 (51.7) 187 (45.1) 338 (51.5) 166 (56.1) 830 (50.8)
Health service factors
 Antenatal Visit
  None 436 (56.6) 425 (52.2) 363 (53.4) 210 (53.9) 1434 (54.0)
  1–3 visits 106 (51.0) 96 (46.5) 195 (53.3) 232 (62.0) 628 (54.5)
  4+ visits 39 (44.2) 38 (32.0) 91 (45.0) 213 (64.3) 381 (51.4)
 Place of birth
  Health facility 23 (37.2) 22 (34.4) 67 (48.0) 254 (62.2) 366 (54.4)
  Home 559 (55.6) 537 (49.9) 582 (52.5) 404 (58.6) 2081 (53.6)
 Delivery assistance
  Health professional 44 (42.3) 53 (41.0) 68 (47.1) 257 (62.1) 422 (53.3)
  Traditional birth attendants 109 (51.5) 81 (54.8) 32 (41.0) 225 (58.7) 447 (54.5)
  Other untrained individuals 390 (57.2) 411 (50.4) 542 (53.5) 67 (49.8) 1410 (53.3)
 Timing of postnatal checkup
  None 556 (54.6) 536 (49.5) 633 (52.4) 622 (60.4) 2348 (54.1)
  Within a week 21 (54.7) 14 (31.8) 3 (66.8) 21 (60.1) 58 (48.5)
  After a week 5 (49.1) 10 (57.8) 13 (36.9) 14 (44.4) 42 (44.5)
Community level factors
 Place of residence
  Urban 47 (45.6) 33 (42.5) 67 (43.8) 78 (60.9) 225 (48.8)
  Rural 535 (55.4) 527 (49.5) 582 (53.2) 579 (69.8) 2222 (54.3)
 Region of residence
  Large central regions 56 (56.6) 540 (51.5) 620 (54.2) 604 (60.8) 2330 (55.7)
  Small peripheral regions 10 (25.7) 15 (19.8) 19 (24.7) 35 (48.8) 78 (30.1)
  Metropolis 5 (17.9) 5 (26.1) 11 (36.9) 18 (58.1) 39 (36.3)
  1. n (%): weighted count and proportion for each outcome variable by study factors