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Table 1 Prevalence of early initiation of breastfeeding by study factors in Ethiopia, 2000–2016

From: Trends and determinants of early initiation of breastfeeding and exclusive breastfeeding in Ethiopia from 2000 to 2016

Variables 2000 2005 2011 2016 2000–2016
n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%)
Socioeconomic factors
 Maternal education
  No schooling 1678 (49.0) 2147 (69.0) 1446 (51.9) 1820 (75.8) 7092 (60.5)
  Primary school 291 (50.2) 455 (65.1) 637 (53.6) 948 (76.2) 2331 (62.8)
  Secondary and higher 90 (40.9) 114 (63.6) 123 (65.8) 257 (73.0) 583 (62.2)
 Maternal employment
  No employment 847 (51.9) 2037 (70.3) 1179 (56.9) 1794 (76.3) 5858 (65.4)
  Formal employment 168 (45.2) 178 (63.9) 361 (53.1) 397 (79.2) 1104 (60.3)
  Informal employment 1044 (47.1) 501 (62.5) 648 (47.1) 833 (72.9) 3025 (54.6)
 Partner education
  No schooling 1207 (46.5) 1522 (68.7) 995 (50.2) 1269 (74.5) 4993 (58.8)
  Primary school 592 (54.2) 878 (68.5) 979 (56.1) 1200 (78.2) 3649 (64.5)
  Secondary and higher 233 (48.9) 286 (64.8) 206 (55.1) 416 (74.6) 1141 (61.7)
 Household wealth status
  Poor 643 (49.8) 1191 (70.1) 963 (50.7) 1376 (76.3) 4174 (62.3)
  Middle 539 (45.3) 603 (69.0) 453 (52.1) 639 (76.0) 2235 (59.2)
  Rich 876 (50.4) 022 (65.6) 789 (56.7) 1010 (74.6) 3597 (61.1)
Demographic factors
 Maternal age
  15–24 years 667 (47.5) 835 (66.4) 658 (51.8) 878 (75.0) 3038 (59.5)
  25–34 years 992 (51.5) 1292 (68.5) 1090 (52.80 1574 (77.5) 4949 (63.6)
  35–49 years 340 (45.0) 590 (70.6) 458 (55.2) 572 (72.1) 2019 (60.3)
 Child sex
  Male 1057 (48.7) 401 (65.1) 307 (46.1) 368 (68.4) 4946 (59.6)
  Female 1002 (48.9) 349 (67.4) 293 (51.6) 410 (76.5) 5059 (62.7)
 Family size
   ≤ 3 219 (46.5) 281 (66.9) 239 (49.4) 337 (71.7) 1076 (58.3)
  4–5 706 (49.0) 885 (67.5) 788 (55.0) 1057 (76.5) 3435 (61.7)
  6+ 1134 (49.1) 1551 (69) 1178 (52.5) 1631 (76.0) 5494 (61.4)
 Desire for pregnancy
  Desired the pregnancy 1736 (50.4) 2232 (68.2) 1998 (53.7) 2794 (76.1) 8760 (62.1)
  Not desired the pregnancy 320 (41.3) 485 (68.6) 208 (47.2) 231 (71.4) 1244 (55.3)
Health service factors
 Antenatal Visit
  None 1544 (49.7) 2011 (71.0) 1207 (51.2) 1071 (78.1) 5833 (60.3)
  1–3 visits 328 (47.6) 423 (63.9) 569 (53.0) 946 (74.2) 1266 (61.3)
  4+ visits 174 (44.2) 271 (57.3) 427 (58.9) 1004 (74.6) 1876 (63.9)
 Mode of delivery
  Vaginal birthing 2049 (48.9) 2699 (68.4) 2178 (53.3) 2984 (76.7) 9910 (61.5)
  Cesarean section 8 (33.3) 18 (48.6) 28 (35.6) 40 (38.9) 94 (38.8)
 Place of birth
  Health facility 79 (38.0) 141 (59.5) 260 (55.4) 1117 (76.1) 1596 (67.1)
  Home 1980 (49.3) 2574 (68.8) 1946 (52.7) 1907 (75.4) 8407 (60.1)
 Delivery assistance
  Health professional 175 (45.7) 276 (64.7) 266 (54.8) 1130 (75.6) 1846 (66.2)
  Traditional birth attendants 390 (46.8) 333 (64.5) 127 (50.9) 1029 (76.3) 1879 (63.7)
  Other untrained individuals 1369 (49.5) 1930 (68.6) 1734 (52.9) 401 (72.3) 5434 (57.7)
Community level factors
 Place of residence
  Urban 180 (44.9) 184 (63.8) 325 (59.3) 368 (76.8) 1056 (61.6)
  Rural 1879 (49.2) 2533 (68.6) 1881 (52.0) 2657 (75.5) 8949 (61.1)
 Region of residence
  Large central regions 1953 (48.8) 2463 (67.1) 2033 (52.9) 2742 (75.8) 9191 (60.7)
  Small peripheral regions 60 (45.8) 199 (86.3) 100 (46.7) 187 (74.2) 546 (66.0)
  Metropolis 46 (51.6) 555 (78.3) 73 (66.9) 96 (74.7) 269 (66.6)
  1. n (%): weighted count and proportion for each outcome variable by study factors