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Table 2 Factors associated with early initiation and exclusive breastfeeding in Malawi: results from unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression models

From: Determinants of timely initiation of breast milk and exclusive breastfeeding in Malawi: a population-based cross-sectional study

Variable Early initiation of breastfeeding (n = 6351) Exclusive breastfeeding (n = 1619)
OR (95% CI) p-value aORb (95% CI) p-value OR (95% CI) p-value aORc (95% CI) p-value
Child age (months)a
 0 ~  2 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
 3 ~  5 1.35 (1.02, 1.80) 0.038 1.28 (0.95, 1.73) 0.104 0.24 (0.18, 0.30) < 0.001 0.24 (0.18, 0.30) < 0.001
 6 ~  23 1.35 (1.08, 1.70) 0.008 1.32 (1.05, 1.66) 0.018  
Child sex
 Male 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
 Female 0.89 (0.76, 1.05) 0.183 0.88 (0.74, 1.04) 0.144 1.21 (0.94, 1.55) 0.131 1.14 (0.86, 1.50) 0.367
Woman’s age
 15–24 1.00     1.00   1.00  
 25–34 0.99 (0.84, 1.18) 0.962    1.16 (0.90, 1.50) 0.237 0.83 (0.55, 1.26) 0.382
 ≥35 1.14 (0.88, 1.47) 0.327    1.52 (1.08, 2.16) 0.017 0.99 (0.54, 1.79) 0.967
Marital status
 Unmarried 1.00     1.00    
 Married 0.92 (0.76, 1.13) 0.443    1.10 (0.79, 1.54) 0.560   
Education
 No formal Edu. 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
 Primary Edu 0.96 (0.73, 1.26) 0.757 1.02 (0.76, 1.35) 0.909 0.87 (0.61, 1.24) 0.431 0.91 (0.60, 1.38) 0.647
 Secondary + 0.69 (0.51, 0.94) 0.018 1.05 (0.75, 1.48) 0.769 1.46 (0.94, 2.26) 0.090 1.59 (0.92, 2.76) 0.099
Occupation
 Unemployed 1.00     1.00    
 Employed 0.92 (0.76, 1.10) 0.346    0.98 (0.76, 1.25) 0.869   
Wealth
 Poor 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
 Middle 1.02 (0.82, 1.27) 0.862 1.02 (0.81, 1.28) 0.896 1.22 (0.88, 1.69) 0.226 1.16 (0.81, 1.66) 0.405
 Rich 0.69 (0.57, 0.83) < 0.001 0.91 (0.74, 1.12) 0.363 1.41 (1.04, 1.91) 0.026 1.02 (0.71, 1.47) 0.911
Region
 Northern 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
 Central 0.63 (0.50, 0.79) < 0.001 0.59 (0.47, 0.76) < 0.001 1.60 (1.09, 2.34) 0.015 1.74 (1.19, 2.53) 0.004
 Southern 0.98 (0.79, 1.21) 0.818 0.94 (0.75, 1.17) 0.578 1.27 (0.89, 1.78) 0.176 1.37 (0.97, 1.94) 0.077
Residence
 Urban 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
Rural 2.17 (1.71, 2.75) < 0.001 1.98 (1.50, 2.60) < 0.001 0.66 (0.42, 1.02) 0.061 0.69 (0.42, 1.12) 0.130
Number of children
 Primipara 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
 Secundipara 1.32 (1.05, 1.65) 0.015 1.34 (1.06, 1.67) 0.011 1.02 (0.73, 1.43) 0.910 0.94 (0.66, 1.38) 0.799
 Multipara 1.27 (1.05, 1.56) 0.014 1.21 (0.99, 1.51) 0.093 1.43 (1.08, 1.67) 0.021 1.54 (1.14, 3.00) 0.009
Media exposure
 No 1.00     1.00   1.00  
 Yes 0.92 (0.78, 1.08) 0.316    1.31 (1.02, 1.69) 0.037 1.14 (0.85, 1.54) 0.379
Place of delivery
 Non-health facility 1.00   1.00   1.00    
 Health facility 1.51 (1.14, 2.01) 0.004** 1.78 (1.10, 2.88) 0.018 0.96 (0.60, 1.54) 0.873   
Number of ANC visits
 Inadequate 1.00     1.00    
 Adequate 0.99 (0.83, 1.17) 0.909    1.05 (0.82, 1.33) 0.706   
ANC attendant
 Unskilled 1.00     1.00    
 Skilled 0.88 (0.64, 1.22) 0.444    1.07 (0.61, 1.87) 0.812   
Birth attendant
 Unskilled 1.00   1.00   1.00    
 Skilled 1.33 (1.02, 1.74) 0.035 1.05 (0.66, 1.67) 0.825 0.95 (0.64, 1.42) 0.815   
Mode of delivery
 Caesarean section 1.00   1.00   1.00   100  
 Vaginal delivery 3.52 (2.71, 4.59) < 0.001 3.15 (2.40, 4.13) < 0.001 0.64 (0.39, 1.07) 0.088 0.87 (0.50, 1.51) 0.624
Birth type
 Twin/multiple 1.00   1.00   1.00    
 Singleton 2.33 (1.43, 3.79) 0.001 1.96 (1.19, 3.24) 0.007 1.52 (0.63, 3.67) 0.355   
Size of child at birth
 Small 1.00   1.00   1.00    
 Average 1.17 (0.93, 1.46) 0.175 1.19 (0.95, 1.49) 0.126 0.89 (0.62, 1.29) 0.532   
 Large 0.88 (0.69, 1.12) 0.319 0.93 (0.73, 1.20) 0.588 0.79 (0.53, 1.19) 0.258   
  1. Bold means p < 0.05
  2. secondary+ secondary or higher education, ANC Antenatal care, CI Confidence interval, OR Odds ratio, aOR Adjusted odds ratio, aage of exclusive breastfeeding sample = 0~5 months
  3. badjusted for child age, child sex, education, wealth, region, residence, number of children, place of delivery, birth attendant, mode of delivery, birth type, and size of child at birth
  4. cadjusted for child age, child sex, woman’s age, education, wealth, region, residence, number of children, media exposure, and mode of delivery