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Table 1 Distribution of study characteristics

From: Determinants of timely initiation of breast milk and exclusive breastfeeding in Malawi: a population-based cross-sectional study

Variable Early initiation of breastfeeding (n = 6351) Exclusive breastfeeding (n = 1619)
No (n = 1462)
n (%)
Yes(n = 4889)
n (%)
p-valuea No(n = 628)
n (%)
Yes (n = 991)
n (%)
p-valuea
Child age (months)b    0.021    < 0.001
 0 ~  2 228 (28.0) 586 (72.0)   184 (22.6) 630 (77.4)  
 3 ~  5 179 (22.3) 626 (77.7)   444 (55.2) 361 (48.8)  
 6 ~  23 1055 (22.3) 3677 (77.7)   -  
Child sex    0.183    0.131
 Male 704 (22.0) 2493 (78.0)   328 (41.1) 470 (58.9)  
 Female 758 (24.0) 2396 (76.0)   300 (36.5) 521 (63.5)  
Woman’s age    0.518    0.056
 15–24 675 (23.3) 2216 (76.7)   336 (41.4) 475 (58.6)  
 25–34 582 (23.4) 1905 (76.6)   222 (37.8) 365 (62.2)  
 ≥35 205 (21.1) 768 (78.9)   70 (31.7) 151 (68.3)  
Marital status    0.443    0.559
 Unmarried 218 (21.9) 782 (78.1)   88 (40.9) 127 (59.1)  
 Married 1244 (23.2) 4107 (76.8)   540 (38.5) 864 (61.5)  
Education    0.004    0.006
 No Education 160 (21.1) 600 (78.9)   80 (38.3) 127 (61.7)  
 Primary Edu 927 (21.8) 3320 (78.2)   445 (41.8) 621 (58.2)  
 Secondary + 375 (27.9) 969 (72.1)   103 (29.9) 243 (70.1)  
Occupation    0.346    0.869
 Unemployed 448 (22.0) 1590 (78.0)   231 (38.5) 369 (61.5)  
 Employed 1014 (23.5) 3299 (76.5)   397 (39.0) 622 (61.0)  
Wealth    < 0.001    0.059
 Poor 639 (20.9) 2426 (79.1)   326 (42.4) 442 (57.6)  
 Middle 253 (20.5) 978 (79.5)   116 (37.6) 193 (62.4)  
 Rich 570 (27.7) 1485 (72.3)   186 (34.3) 356 (65.7)  
Region    < 0.001    0.053
 Northern 142 (19.4) 593 (80.6)   83 (46.1) 97 (53.9)  
 Central 740 (27.6) 1940 (72.4)   221 (34.8) 415 (65.2)  
 Southern 580 (19.8) 2356 (80.2)   324 (40.3) 479 (59.7)  
Residence    < 0.001    0.060
 Urban 317 (36.4) 554 (63.6)   71 (30.6) 161 (69.4)  
 Rural 1145 (20.9) 4335 (79.1)   557 (40.2) 830 (59.8)  
Number of children    0.018    0.019
 Primipara 449 (26.4) 1254 (73.6)   190 (43.1) 250 (56.9)  
 Secundipara 281 (21.3) 1037 (78.7)   154 (42.7) 207 (57.3)  
 Multipara 732 (22.0) 2598 (78.0)   284 (34.7) 534 (65.3)  
Media exposure    0.316    0.037
 No 947 (22.5) 3259 (77.5)   433 (41.0) 623 (59.0)  
 Yes 515 (24.0) 1629 (76.0)   195 (34.7) 368 (65.3)  
Place of delivery    0.004    0.873
 Non-health facility 135 (30.6) 307 (69.5)   44 (37.9) 72 (62.1)  
 Health facility 1327 (22.5) 4582 (77.5)   584 (38.8) 919 (61.2)  
Number of ANC visits    0.909    0.706
 Inadequate 753 (22.9) 2531 (77.1)   352 (39.3) 543 (60.7)  
 Adequate 709 (23.1) 2358 (76.9)   276 (38.2) 448 (61.8)  
ANC attendant    0.444    0.812
 Unskilled 63 (21.0) 239 (79.0)   32 (40.3) 47 (59.7)  
 Skilled 1399 (23.1) 4650 (76.9)   596 (38.7) 944 (61.3)  
Birth attendant    0.035    0.815
 Unskilled 156 (28.0) 403 (72.0)   58 (37.8) 95 (62.2)  
 Skilled 1306 (22.6) 4489 (77.4)   570 (38.9) 896 (61.1)  
Mode of delivery    < 0.001    0.085
 Caesarean section 206 (48.7) 218 (51.3)   36 (29.6) 86 (70.4)  
 Vaginal delivery 1256 (21.2) 4671 (78.8)   592 (39.5) 905 (60.5)  
Birth type    < 0.001    0.351
 Twin/multiple 40 (40.7) 59 (59.3)   15 (48.8) 16 (51.2)  
 Singleton 1422 (22.7) 4830 (77.3)   613 (38.6) 975 (61.4)  
Size of child at birth    0.005    0.463
 Small 232 (23.6) 752 (76.4)   95 (35.4) 173 (64.6)  
 Average 676 (20.9) 2553 (79.1)   320 (38.3) 514 (61.7)  
 Large 554 (25.9) 1584 (74.1)   213 (41.2) 304 (58.8)  
  1. Bold means p < 0.05
  2. secondary+ secondary or higher education, ANC Antenatal care
  3. aPearson’s chi-square test, bage of exclusive breastfeeding sample = 0~5 months