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Table 2 Distribution of mothers who started breastfeeding within an hour of birth according to the explanatory factors in Nepal (weighted n = 1,978)

From: The effect of maternal health service utilization in early initiation of breastfeeding among Nepalese mothers

  Initiation of breastfeeding  
Early Delayed  
n (%) n (%) p value
Socioeconomic characteristics   
Mother’s age (years)    0.339
 15–19 160 (55.0) 131 (45.0)  
 20–24 432 (57.6) 318 (42.4)  
 25–29 301 (51.6) 283 (48.4)  
 30 and above 193 (54.6) 160 (45.4)  
Ethnicity    0.008
 Relatively advantaged 325 (60.8) 210 (39.2)  
 Relatively disadvantaged 423 (55.2) 344 (44.8)  
 Dalit 155 (56.3) 120 (43.7)  
 Others (Madheshi and other unidentified) 183 (45.7) 218 (54.3)  
Wealth quintile    0.094
 Poorest 256 (61.9) 158 (38.1)  
 Poorer 225 (53.8) 193 (46.2)  
 Middle 232 (51.1) 222 (48.9)  
 Richer 230 (56.2) 179 (43.8)  
 Richest 144 (50.7) 140 (49.4)  
Mother’s education    0.071
 No education 280 (49.1) 290 (50.9)  
 Primary 222 (56.8) 169 (43.2)  
 Secondary 421 (58.5) 298 (41.5)  
 Higher 164 (55.0) 134 (45.0)  
Mother’s occupation    0.015
 Not working 471 (50.7) 457 (49.3)  
 Paid 128 (56.2) 99 (43.8)  
 Agriculture 488 (59.3) 335 (40.7)  
Place of residence    0.144
 Urban 606 (57.0) 456 (43.0)  
 Rural 481 (52.5) 435 (47.5)  
Ecological region    0.033
 Mountain 80 (61.3) 51 (38.7)  
 Hill 444 (58.4) 316 (41.6)  
 Terai (Plain land) 563 (51.7) 525 (48.3)  
Province    <  0.001
 Province 1 175 (51.6) 164 (48.4)  
 Province 2 232 (45.3) 281 (54.7)  
 Province 3 176 (56.4) 136 (43.6)  
 Province 4 90 (54.7) 74 (45.3)  
 Province 5 215 (59.1) 149 (40.9)  
 Province 6 82 (67.6) 39 (32.4)  
 Province 7 117 (70.7) 49 (29.3)  
Pregnancy-related characteristics    
Mother’s age at first birth (years)    0.443
 <  20 574 (55.9) 453 (44.1)  
 > = 20 513 (53.9) 438 (46.1)  
Birth order    0.978
 1 442 (54.8) 364 (45.2)  
 2 317 (55.3) 256 (44.7)  
 3 or more 328 (54.7) 272 (45.3)  
Characteristics related to maternal health service utilization   
Frequency of antenatal visits    0.118
 No visit 36 (50.2) 36 (49.8)  
 1–3 253 (50.1) 252 (49.9)  
 4 and more 797 (56.9) 604 (43.1)  
Place of delivery    <  0.001
 Health facility 753 (59.3) 517 (40.6)  
 Home 333 (47.0) 375 (53.0)  
Professional assistance
during delivery
   0.003
 SBAa 744 (58.3) 533 (41.7)  
 Other than SBA 343 (48.9) 359 (51.1)  
Mode of delivery    <  0.001
 Vaginal 738 (41.5) 1042 (58.5)  
 Caesarean 153 (77.5) 45 (22.5)  
  1. a includes doctor, nurse and midwives
  2. p value is based on the Pearson chi-square test