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Table 2 Comparison of characteristics associated with discontinuation of breastfeeding prior to 6-months postpartum in the exclusive breastfeeding and any breastfeeding groups (N = 209)

From: Prevalence and associated factors of breastfeeding in women with gestational diabetes in a University Hospital in Thailand

Factors Exclusive breastfeeding p-value Any breastfeeding p-value
< 6mo
N = 161
≥ 6mo
N = 48
< 6mo
N = 105
≥ 6mo
N = 104
  Mean ± SD or n (%) Mean ± SD or n (%)   Mean ± SD or n (%) Mean ± SD or n (%)  
Age (years) 33.7 ± 5.3 32.8 ± 4.0 0.201 33.5 ± 5.2 33.4 ± 4.8 0.951
Marital status    1.000    0.683
 Single 2 (1.2) 0 (0)   1(0.9) 1 (1.0)  
 Married 156 (96.9) 47 (97.9)   103(98.2) 101 (96.1)  
 Separated 3 (1.9) 1 (2.1)   1(0.9) 3 (2.9)  
Educational level (n = 205)    0.001    0.166
 Primary school 17 (10.8) 4 (8.5)   11 (10.7) 10 (9.8)  
 High school 57 (36.0) 10 (21.3)   35 (34.0) 32 (31.4)  
 Bachelor degree 84 (53.2) 28 (59.6)   57 (55.3) 55 (53.9)  
 Master degree or higher 0 (0.0) 5 (10.6)   0 (0.0) 5 (4.9)  
Occupation (N = 209)    0.016    0.092
 Housewife 41 (25.5) 9 (18.7)   24 (22.9) 26 (25.0)  
 Employee 92 (57.1) 22 (45.7)   65 (61.9) 49 (47.1)  
 Government officer 6 (3.7) 8 (16.7)   4 (3.8) 10 (9.6)  
 Private business owner 22 (13.7) 9 (18.8)   12 (11.4) 19 (18.3)  
Maternity leave length for 3 months (n = 158) 66 (55.0) 23 (60.5) 0.579 48 (59.3) 41 (53.2) 0.521
Family earnings (THB/month)    0.212    0.180
 <  10,000 29 (18.0) 7 (14.6)   17 (16.2) 19 (18.3)  
 10,000-50,000 117 (72.7) 32 (66.7)   80 (76.2) 69 (66.3)  
 >  50,000 15 (9.3) 9 (18.7)   8 (7.6) 16 (15.4)  
Primiparity 73 (45.3) 25 (52.1) 0.416 47 (44.8) 51 (49.0) 0.580
Pre-pregnancy body mass index (kg/m2) 24.4 ± 4.9 23.7 ± 5.9 0.439 24.9 ± 5.1 23.7 ± 5.0 0.088
Gestational weight gain 11.2 ± 4.8 12.4 ± 4.9 0.129 11.4 ± 5.1 11.5 ± 4.6 0.914
Gestational age at delivery 37.5 ± 2.2 38.1 ± 1.9 0.104 37.5 ± 2.1 37.8 ± 2.2 0.456
Cesarean section delivery 81 (50.3) 15 (31.3) 0.022 54 (51.4) 42 (40.4) 0.127
Inversion or retraction of nipple (n = 209) 31 (19.5) 4 (8.3) 0.081 24 (23.3) 11 (10.6) 0.016
Infants with severe tongue tie (n = 202) 28 (18.1) 10 (22.2) 0.334 15 (14.9) 23 (23.2) 0.092
History of completed 6-month EBF (n = 177) 20 (15.2) 12 (26.7) 0.115 12 (13.8) 20 (22.2) 0.173
History of completed 6-month any breastfeeding (n = 168) 29 (22.7) 13 (32.5) 0.216 15 (19.5) 27 (29.7) 0.154
Intention time to breastfeed in index pregnancy (months, n = 197) 5.2 ± 2.9 7.0 ± 3.3 <  0.001 4.6 ± 2.2 6.6 ± 3.5 <  0.001
Intention to breastfeed at least 6 months postpartum (n = 197) 91 (59.5) 43 (97.7) <  0.001 52 (51.5) 82 (85.4) <  0.001
Initiation of breastfeeding within the first 24 h after delivery (n = 204) 44 (27.3) 17 (35.4) 0.238 21 (20.0) 40 (38.5) 0.004
Contraceptive method    0.007    < 0.001
 Non-hormonal contraception 81(50.3) 18 (37.5)   53 (50.5) 46 (44.2)  
 Progestin-only contraception 66 (41.0) 30 (62.5)   39 (37.1) 57 (54.8)  
 Combined hormonal contraception 14 (8.7) 0(0.0)   13 (12.4) 1 (1.0)  
  1. SD standard deviation, THB Thai baht, EBF exclusive breastfeeding
  2. A p-value < 0.05 indicates statistical significance