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Table 1 Correlates of exclusive breastfeeding practices in rural and urban Niger: a community-based cross-sectional study

From: Correlates of exclusive breastfeeding practices in rural and urban Niger: a community-based cross-sectional study

Variable Urban p - value Rural p - value
EBF
(n = 37)
n (%)
Non-EBF
(n = 197)
n (%)
EBF
(n = 154)
n (%)
Non-EBF
(n = 129)
n (%)
Sex of infant
 Male 25 (67.6) 99 (50.3)   79 (51.3) 58 (45.0)  
 Female 12 (32.4) 98 (49.7) 0.053 75 (48.7) 71 (55.0) 0.288
Infant’s age
 0-1 m 6 (16.2) 23 (11.7)   6 (3.9) 3 (2.3)  
 1-2 m 9 (24.3) 26 (13.2)   19 (12.3) 11 (8.5)  
 2-3 m 4 (10.8) 30 (15.2)   19 (12.3) 16 (12.4)  
 3-4 m 11 (29.7) 31 (15.7)   26 (16.9) 27 (20.9)  
 4-5 m 3 (8.1) 26 (13.2)   40 (26.0) 36 (27.9)  
 5-6 m 4 (10.8) 31 (15.7)   25 (16.2) 14 (10.9)  
 6 − 7 m 0 (0.0) 30 (15.2) 0.160a 19 (12.3) 22 (17.1) 0.484a
Mother’s age
  <  30 26 (70.3) 131 (66.5)   110 (71.4) 106 (82.2)  
  ≥ 30 11 (29.7) 66 (33.5) 0.654 44 (28.6) 23 (17.8) 0.034
Mother’s education
 No education 20 (54.1) 90 (45.7)   141 (91.6) 108 (83.7)  
 Any education 14 (37.8) 100 (50.8)   13 (8.4) 21 (16.3)  
 Unknown 3 (8.1) 7 (3.6) 0.219 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0.043
Father’s education
 No education 19 (51.4) 85 (43.1)   126 (81.8) 89 (69.0)  
 Any education 15 (40.5) 96 (48.7)   26 (16.9) 39 (30.2)  
 Unknown 3 (8.1) 16 (8.1) 0.340 2 (1.3) 1 (0.8) 0.008
Mother’s job
 Housewife 24 (64.9) 144 (73.1)   130 (84.4) 110 (85.3)  
 Agriculture/Self-employed 7 (18.9) 31 (15.7)   20 (13.0) 19 (14.7)  
 Employee 4 (10.8) 13 (6.6)   1 (0.6) 0 (0.0)  
 Others 2 (5.4) 9 (4.6)   2 (1.3) 0 (0.0)  
 Unknown 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0.730 1 (0.6) 0 (0.0) 0.446
Father’s job
 Famer 1 (2.7) 3 (1.5)   147 (95.5) 117 (90.7)  
 Self-employed 26 (70.3) 123 (62.4)   3 (1.9) 9 (7.0)  
 Employee 6 (16.2) 57 (28.9)   2 (1.3) 1 (0.8)  
 Others 4 (10.8) 14 (7.1)   1 (0.6) 2 (1.6)  
 Unknown 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0.395 1 (0.6) 0 (0.0) 0.167
Wealth index
 Lower 16 (43.2) 107 (54.3)   91 (59.1) 49 (38.0)  
 Higher 21 (56.8) 90 (45.7) 0.216 63 (40.9) 80 (62.0) <  0.001
Parity
 1 8 (21.6) 47 (23.9)   13 (8.4) 26 (20.2)  
 2–3 19 (51.4) 75 (38.1)   43 (27.9) 38 (29.5)  
 4–6 9 (24.3) 56 (28.4)   52 (33.8) 40 (31.0)  
 -7 1 (2.7) 19 (9.6) 0.329b 46 (29.9) 25 (19.4) 0.004b
Child death
 Yes 2 (5.4) 35 (17.8)   67 (43.5) 36 (27.9)  
 No 35 (94.6) 162 (82.2) 0.059 87 (56.5) 93 (72.1) 0.007
Antenatal care
 Yes 37 (100.0) 196 (99.5)   138 (89.6) 116 (89.9)  
 No 0 (0.0) 1 (0.5)   15 (9.7) 13 (10.1)  
 Unknown 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0.664 1 (0.6) 0 (0.0) 0.939
Place of delivery
 Health facilities 34 (91.9) 184 (93.4)   103 (66.9) 103 (79.8)  
 Home 3 (8.1) 13 (6.6)   48 (31.2) 25 (19.4)  
 Others 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)   2 (1.3) 1 (0.8)  
 Unknown 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0.739 1 (0.6) 0 (0.0) 0.061
Type of birth attendant
 Professional 34 (91.9) 184 (93.4)   108 (70.1) 105 (81.4)  
 TBA 0 (0.0) 4 (2.0)   27 (17.5) 8 (6.2)  
 No professional 3 (8.1) 9 (4.6)   17 (11.0) 15 (11.6)  
 Unknown 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0.468 2 (1.3) 1 (0.8) 0.014
Problems with delivery
 Normal 31 (83.8) 187 (94.9)   151 (98.1) 124 (96.1)  
 Caesarean and others 6 (16.2) 10 (5.1) 0.014 3 (1.9) 5 (3.9) 0.330
Postnatal carec
 Yes 18 (81.8) 133 (89.9)   111 (86.0) 98 (85.2)  
 No 1 (4.5) 9 (6.1)   17 (13.2) 16 (13.9)  
 Unknown 3 (13.6) 6 (4.1) 0.855 1 (0.8) 1 (0.9) 0.865
Colostrum
 Yes 37 (100.0) 194 (98.5)   152 (98.7) 125 (96.9)  
 No 0 (0.0) 3 (1.5) 0.450 2 (1.3) 4 (3.1) 0.295
Initiation of Breastfeeding
 Within 1 h 25 (67.6) 137 (69.5)   147 (95.5) 109 (84.5)  
 After 1 h 12 (32.4) 60 (30.5)   7 (4.5) 19 (14.7)  
 Unknown 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0.811 0 (0.0) 1 (0.8) 0.003
  1. Note: EBF was defined as breastfeeding only with receiving breast milk, oral rehydration solution (ORS), vitamins, minerals and medicines since birth
  2. a Mann-Whitney U test b Cochran-Armitage test: c170 among 234 urban mothers and 244 among 283 rural mothers with infant aged more than 2 months were used for chi-square test