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Table 1 Characteristics of the study population in India, 2015–16 NFHS

From: Regional prevalence and determinants of exclusive breastfeeding in India

  North (n = 2731) South (n = 3641) East (n = 5177) West (n = 2572) Central (n = 6425) North Eastern (n = 806)
n % n % n % n % n % n %
Child characteristics
 Sex of baby
  Male 1443 52.8 1880 51.7 2740 52.9 1292 50.2 3190 51.4 399 49.5
  Female 1288 47.2 1761 48.4 2436 47.1 1280 49.8 3015 48.6 407 50.6
 Age of child (months)
  0–2.9 1108 40.6 1467 40.3 2117 40.9 1054 41.0 2681 43.0 351 43.5
  3–5.9 1623 59.4 2174 59.7 3060 59.1 1518 59.0 3525 57.0 455 56.5
 Birth order
  First-born 1130 41.4 1606 4.1 1901 36.7 1074 41.8 2113 34.1 323 40.1
  2nd-4th 1428 52.3 1994 54.7 2863 55.3 1438 55.9 3506 56.5 420 52.1
  5 or more 173 6.3 41.0 1.1 413 8.0 60 2.3 587 9.5 63 7.8
 Perceived size of baby
  Small 312 11.6 349 9.7 670 13.1 321 12.5 928 15.1 116 15.6
  Average 2007 74.5 2235 61.9 3303 64.5 1670 65.3 4411 71.9 483 64.6
  Large 374 13.9 1025 28.4 1145 22.4 568 22.2 797 13.0 148 19.8
 Preceding birth interval
  No previous birth 1139 41.7 1630 44.8 1914 37.0 1081 42.0 2122 34.2 323 40.1
   < 24 months 401 14.7 562 15.4 751 14.5 357 13.9 997 16.1 70 8.7
   > 24 months 1191 43.6 1449 39.8 2511 48.5 1133 44.1 3087 49.7 412 51.1
Maternal characteristics
 Mother’s age
  15–24 years 154 6.1 341 9.4 714 13.8 243 9.4 317 4.9 94 11.6
  25–34 years 2247 89.5 3211 88.2 4209 81.3 2259 87.8 5779 90.0 639 79.3
  35–49 years 111 4.4 90 2.5 253 4.9 70 2.7 329 5.1 73 9.1
 Mother’s education
  No education 758 27.8 358 9.8 1870 36.1 346 13.5 1987 32.0 152 18.8
  Primary 363 13.3 258 7.1 751 14.5 293 11.4 943 15.2 140 17.3
  Secondary and higher 1610 58.9 3025 83.1 2555 49.4 1932 75.1 3275 52.8 515 63.9
 Mother’s religion
  Hindu 2074 76.0 2965 81.4 3885 75.0 2083 81.0 5209 83.9 380 47.2
  Muslim 385 14.1 475 13.1 1098 21.2 342 13.3 959 15.5 269 33.4
  Christianity and others 272 10.0 201 5.5 194 3.8 147 5.7 38 0.6 156 19.4
 Type of caste or tribe
  Scheduled caste 718 26.3 841 23.1 1139 22.0 355 13.8 1408 22.7 67 8.3
  Scheduled tribe 266 9.7 235 6.4 611 11.8 430 16.7 673 10.8 215 26.6
  Other backward class 983 36.0 20 55.5 2179 42.1 836 32.5 3065 49.4 167 20.7
  Others 764 28.0 20 15.0 1248 24.1 951 37.0 1060 17.1 357 44.4
Family/household characteristics
 Marital status
  Currently married 2721 99.7 3637 99.9 5153 99.7 2555 99.4 6172 99.5 799 99.3
  Formerly married (divorced/separated/ widowed) 7 0.3 4 0.1 16 0.3 14 0.6 29 0.5 5 0.7
 Household wealth index
  Poor 755 27.7 798 21.9 3826 73.9 732 28.5 3391 54.7 524 65.0
  Middle 498 18.2 1025 28.1 746 14.4 587 22.8 1150 18.5 157 19.5
  Rich 1478 54.1 1819 50.0 605 11.7 1253 48.7 1664 26.8 125 15.5
Health service characteristics
 Antenatal clinic visits
  None 308 11.3 263 7.2 1364 26.4 243 9.5 1037 16.7 112 13.9
  1–3 1006 36.8 455 12.5 1821 35.2 448 17.4 2988 48.2 304 37.7
  4+ 1418 51.9 2923 80.3 1992 38.5 1880 73.1 2181 35.1 390 48.4
 Place of delivery
  Home 300 11.0 109 3.0 1401 27.1 185 7.2 1412 22.8 239 29.6
  Health facility 2431 89.0 3532 97.0 3775 72.9 2387 92.8 4793 77.2 567 70.4
 Type of delivery assistance
  Health professional 2239 82.3 3244 89.2 3154 61.4 2060 80.6 3645 59.1 556 70.6
  Traditional birth attendants 182 6.7 78 2.2 832 16.2 84 3.3 760 12.3 83 10.5
  Other untrained personnel 300 11.0 316 8.7 1150 22.4 413 16.2 1765 28.6 149 18.9
 Mode of delivery
  Vaginal 2291 83.9 2121 58.3 4497 86.9 1984 77.2 5488 88.4 667 82.8
  Caesarean 440 16.1 1520 41.8 680 13.1 588 22.9 718 11.6 138 17.2
Community-level factor
 Residence
  Urban 878 32.2 1388 38.1 760 14.7 10,651 41.3 1350 21.8 111 13.7
  Rural 1853 67.8 2253 61.9 4417 85.3 1510 58.7 4856 78.3 695 86.3