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Table 2 Univariate analysis of factors associated with non-exclusive breastfeeding at 1 month and 2 months

From: Factors associated with cessation of exclusive breastfeeding at 1 and 2 months postpartum in Taiwan

  1 month 2 months
EBF FF/PBF p-value EBF FF/ PBF p-value
(n = 432) (n = 645) (n = 316) (n = 761)
Age 31.47 ± 4.80 32.28 ± 5.12 0.010 31.38 ± 4.63 32.33 ± 5.21 0.002
Country of birth 0.540    0.432
 Born in Taiwan (n = 1013) 404 (39.88) 609 (60.12) 300 (29.62) 713 (70.38)
 Born Overseas (n = 64) 28 (43.75) 36 (56.25) 16 (29.69) 48 (70.31)
Mode of Birth 0.049    0.049
 Cesarean (n = 297) 105 (35.35) 192 (64.65) 74 (24.92) 223 (75.08)
 Vaginal (n = 780) 327 (41.92) 453 (58.08) 242 (31.03) 538 (68.97)
College degree 0.008    0.002
 No (n = 393) 137 (33.33) 256 (66.67) 93 (23.66) 300 (76.34)
 Yes (n = 684) 295 (43.13) 389 (58.87) 223 (32.60) 461 (67.40)
Parity <  0.001    <  0.001
 Primiparity (n = 490) 158 (32.24) 332 (67.76) 103 (21.02) 387 (78.98)
 Multiparity (n = 587) 274 (46.68) 313 (53.32) 213 (36.29) 374 (63.71)
Reasons for breastfeeding cessation
 Perceived low milk quantity 17 (3.61) 454 (96.39) <  0.001 2 (0.46) 433 (99.54) <  0.001
 Sore breasts or nipples / Too painful 19 (30.16) 44 (69.84) 0.097 4 (25.00) 12 (75.00) 0.701
 Mother/infant separation 10 (21.28) 37 (78.72) 0.007 2 (33.33) 4 (66.67) 0.829
 Maternal choice 1 (1.33) 74 (98.67) <  0.001 1 (1.06) 93 (98.94) <  0.001
 The skill of breastfeeding is not effective 21 (37.50) 35 (62.50) 0.682 7 (30.43) 16 (69.57) 0.907
 Medical condition in mother 3 (10.71) 25 (89.29) 0.001 4 (14.81) 23 (85.19) 0.093
 Inconvenience/fatigue due to breastfeeding 2 (11.11) 16 (88.89) 0.011 0 (0.00) 15 (100.00) 0.012
 Returned to work/school 2 (25.00) 6 (75.00) 0.381 3 (7.69) 36 (92.31) 0.002
 Baby-centered factors 18 (23.68) 58 (76.32) 0.002 12 (34.29) 23 (65.71) 0.514
 Medical condition in baby 31 (44.29) 39 (55.71) 0.461 7 (25.00) 21 (75.00) 0.609
  1. EBF Exclusive breastfeeding, FF Formula feeding, PBF Partial breastfeeding