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Table 5 Determinants of predominant breastfeeding among children less than 6 months of age in Nepal, 2013a,b,c

From: Determinants of infant breastfeeding practices in Nepal: a national study

Determinants n Predominantly breastfed, n (%) Model 1 (Unadjusted PR)
PR (95% CI)
Model 3d
(Adjusted PR)
APR (95% CI)
Overall 458 262 (57.2)   
Child factors
 Child’s gender
  Male 247 141 (57.1) 1.00
  Female 211 121 (57.4) 1.01 (0.86–1.18)  
 Age (in months)
  0 to 1.9 127 94 (74.0) 1.00 1.00
  2 to 3.9 171 108 (63.2) 0.84 (0.73–0.98)* 0.86 (0.75–0.98)*
  4 to 5.9 160 60 (37.5) 0.50 (0.37–0.68)** 0.57 (0.42–0.77)**
 Child’s birth order
  First born child 228 118 (51.8) 1.00
  Second or later born child 230 114 (62.6) 1.18 (1.00–1.40)  
 Breastfed within one hour of birth
  No 251 130 (51.8) 1.00
  Yes 205 130 (63.4) 1.23 (1.01,1.5)*  
 Child fed colostrum
  No 73 43 (58.9) 1.00
  Yes 383 217 (56.7) 1 (0.83,1.19)  
 Child fed prelacteal feeds
  No 305 214 (70.2) 1.00 1.00
  Yes 147 43 (29.3) 0.41 (0.29,0.57)** 0.45 (0.32,0.62)**
Maternal factors
 Mother’s education
  None 206 124 (60.2) 1.00 1.00
  Some primary 66 40 (60.6) 1.03 (0.83–1.28) 1.01 (0.82–1.26)
  Secondary and above 186 98 (52.7) 0.91 (0.73–1.13) 0.92 (0.76–1.13)
 Visit by FCHV for ANC
  No 397 222 (55.9) 1.00 1.00
  Yes 61 40 (65.6) 1.14 (0.91–1.42) 1.11 (0.90–1.38)
 Visit to health facilities for ANC
  No 127 65 (51.2) 1.00 1.00
  Yes 331 197 (59.5) 1.18 (1.00–1.40) 1.19 (1.02–1.38)*
 Visit by FCHV for postnatal care
  No 400 224 (56) 1.00
  Yes 58 38 (65.5) 1.26 (0.98–1.61)  
 Visit to health facilities for postnatal care
  No 275 154 (56.0) 1.00 1.00
  Yes 183 108 (59.0) 1.12 (0.96–1.32) 1.00 (0.87–1.15)
Maternal knowledge present on
 Exclusive breastfeeding for infants up to 6 months of age
  No 152 80 (52.6) 1.00 1.00
  Yes 306 182 (59.5) 1.19 (1.03–1.39)* 1.19 (1.01–1.39)*
 Breastfeeding for children during diarrhea
  No 370 222 (60.0) 1.00 1.00
  Yes 88 40 (45.5) 0.72 (0.59–0.88)* 0.80 (0.66–0.97)*
 Women’s empowerment (scale: 0–14, Md = 5)
  < = 8 (less empowered) 377 212 (56.2) 1.00
  > = 9 (more empowered) 81 50 (61.7) 1.15 (0.93–1.42)  
Household factors
 Ethnicity/Caste
  Upper caste 111 55 (49.6) 1.00 1.00
  Disadvantaged non-dalit Terai caste 156 100 (64.1) 1.26 (0.85–1.86) 1.38 (0.89–2.14)
  Janajatis 101 44 (43.6) 0.95 (0.66–1.36) 1.02 (0.75–1.39)
  Lower castee 90 63 (70.0) 1.48 (1.09–2.00)* 1.47 (1.02–2.12)*
 Household wealth quintile
  1 (Poorest) 79 53 (67.1) 1.00 1.00
  2 91 47 (51.7) 0.66 (0.49–0.91)* 0.68 (0.51–0.91)*
  3 86 50 (58.1) 0.77 (0.61–0.99)* 0.79 (0.62–1.00)
  4 100 61 (61.0) 0.82 (0.64–1.05) 0.87 (0.7–1.07)
  5 (Richest) 102 51 (50.0) 0.71 (0.49–1.04) 0.79 (0.58–1.08)
 Household head’s education
  None 205 122 (59.5) 1.00 1.00
  Some primary 102 51 (50) 0.85 (0.69–1.05) 0.98 (0.8–1.19)
  Secondary and above 151 89 (58.9) 0.99 (0.82–1.19) 1.14 (0.94–1.37)
Community level factors
 Agro-ecological zones
  Mountain 83 52 (62.7) 1.00
  Hill 116 47 (40.5)   0.67 (0.49–0.93)*
  Terai 259 163 (62.9)   1.06 (0.76–1.48)
  1. aFor interpretation purposes, a PR > 1 indicates children were more likely to be predominantly breastfed and PR < 1 indicates children were less likely
  2. b*P-value < 0.05, **P-value < 0.001
  3. c(Model 2 shown in Additional file 4)
  4. dModel 3 included mother’s education and visit by FCHVs for ANC as a priori covariates plus all variables that were significant (p < 0.2) in the first set of multivariable models
  5. e“Lower caste” includes Dalits and religious minorities