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Table 4 Determinants of pre-lacteal feeding among infants in Nepal, 2013a,b,c

From: Determinants of infant breastfeeding practices in Nepal: a national study

Determinants n Fed prelacteal feeds (%) Model 1 (Unadjusted PR)
PR (95% CI)
Model 3d (Adjusted PR)
APR (95% CI)
Overall 1006 329 (32.7)   
Child factors
 Child’s gender
  Male 537 177(33.0) 1.00
  Female 469 152(32.4) 1.03 (0.89–1.19)  
 Child’s birth order
  First born 534 205 (38.4) 1.00 1.00
  Second or later born 472 124 (26.3) 0.65 (0.53–0.81)** 0.72 (0.60,0.86)**
 Breastfed within one hour of birth
  No 582 251 (43.1) 1.00 1.00
  Yes 421 78 (18.5) 0.46(0.34,0.62)** 0.5 (0.37,0.67)**
 Child fed colostrum
  No 164 74 (45.1) 1.00 1.00
  Yes 839 255 (30.4) 0.78 (0.63,0.96)* 0.78 (0.65,0.93)*
 Predominant breastfeeding (Infant < 6 mo)
  No 195 104 (53.3) 1.00 1.00
  Yes 257 43 (16.7) 0.49 (0.34,0.71)** 0.51 (0.36,0.72)**
Maternal factors
 Mother’s education
  None 477 156 (32.7) 1.00 1.00
  Some primary 135 46 (34.1) 1.06 (0.84–1.33) 0.92 (0.72–1.17)
  Secondary and above 393 126 (32.1) 1.15 (0.91–1.46) 0.90 (0.70–1.15)
 Visit by FCHVs for ANC
  No 906 285 (31.5) 1.00 1.00
  Yes 100 44 (44.0) 1.17 (0.92–1.50) 1.14 (0.87–1.50)
 Visit by more highly trained healthcare providerse for ANC
  No 967 308 (31.9) 1.00 1.00
  Yes 39 21 (53.9) 1.28 (0.90–1.81) 1.43 (1.11–1.84)*
Household factors
 Household wealth quintile
  1 (Poorest) 202 53 (26.2) 1.00 1.00
  2 197 71 (36) 1.30 (0.94–1.80) 1.25 (0.9–1.73)
  3 202 57 (28.2) 1.08 (0.79–1.48) 1.05 (0.75–1.47)
  4 205 65 (31.7) 1.20 (0.88–1.65) 1.07 (0.78–1.46)
  5 (Richest) 200 83 (41.5) 1.59 (1.13–2.25)* 1.45 (0.98–2.14)
 Household head’s education
  None 480 146 (30.4) 1.00 1.00
  Some primary 189 71 (37.6) 1.27 (1.01,1.59)* 1.19 (0.92–1.52)
  Secondary and above 337 112 (33.2) 1.24 (0.99–1.55) 1.17 (0.92–1.48)
 Cultivable land size (in Ha)
  Landless (< 0.1) 421 121 (28.7) 1.00 1.00
  Small size (≥  0.1 & < 0.5) 259 81 (31.3) 1.20 (0.98–1.47) 1.18 (0.97–1.43)
  Large size (≥ 0.5) 326 127 (39) 1.26 (1.00–1.58) 1.21 (0.96–1.52)
Contextual factors
 Agro-ecological zones
  Mountain 160 23 (14.4) 1.00
  Hill 257 67 (26.1)   1.49 (0.83–2.65)
  Terai 589 239 (40.6)   2.72
(1.67–4.45)**
  1. aFor interpretation purposes, a PR > 1 indicates that prelacteal feeding was more likely and PR < 1 indicates that prelacteal feeding was less likely
  2. b*P-value < 0.05, **P-value < 0.001
  3. c(Model 2 shown in Additional file 3)
  4. dModel 3 included mother’s education and visit by FCHVs for ANC as a priori covariates plus all variables that were significant (p < 0.2) in the first set of multivariable models
  5. e“more highly trained healthcare providers” includes government health workers (MCHW/VHW, HA/AHW, Nurse/Midwife), doctors/pharmacists and NGO health workers