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Table 3 Determinants of feeding colostrum among infants in Nepal, 2013a,b,c

From: Determinants of infant breastfeeding practices in Nepal: a national study

Determinants n Fed colostrum,
n (%)
Model 1
(Unadjusted PR)
PR (95% CI)
Model 3d
(Adjusted PR)
APR (95% CI)
Overall 1011 844 (83.5)   
Child factors
 Child’s gender
  Male 541 448(82.8) 1.00
  Female 470 396(84.3) 1.01 (0.96–1.06)  
 Child’s birth order
  First born 538 455 (84.6) 1.00
  Second or later born 473 389 (82.2) 0.99 (0.93–1.06)  
 Breastfed within one hour of birth
  No 588 475 (80.8) 1.00 1.00
  Yes 423 369 (87.2) 1.07 (1.01,1.13)* 1.06(1.01,1.11)*
 Child fed prelacteal feeds
  No 674 584 (86.7) 1.00 1.00
  Yes 329 255 (77.5) 0.92 (0.84,1.00)* 0.92(0.86,0.99)*
 Predominant breastfeeding (Infant < 6 mo)
  No 196 166 (84.7) 1.00
  Yes 260 217 (83.5) 1.00 (0.94,1.05)  
Maternal factors
 Mother’s education
  None 479 373 (77.9) 1.00 1.00
  Some primary 135 115 (85.2) 1.08 (1–1.17) 1.05 (0.96–1.14)
  Secondary and above 396 355 (89.7) 1.12 (1.06–1.19)** 1.04 (0.97–1.12)
 Mother’s age (in years)
  15–19.9 149 113 (75.8) 1.00 1.00
  20–29.9 697 595 (85.4) 1.12 (1.02–1.23)* 1.09 (1.00–1.19)*
  ≥ 30 165 136 (82.4) 1.05 (0.93–1.19) 1.07 (0.94–1.22)
 Visit by FCHVs for ANC
  No 909 760 (83.6) 1.00 1.00
  Yes 102 84 (82.4) 1.01 (0.91–1.13) 1 (0.91–1.11)
 Visit by more highly trained healthcare providerse for ANC
  No 972 816 (84.0) 1.00 1.00
  Yes 39 28 (71.8) 0.91 (0.8–1.02) 0.94 (0.86–1.03)
 Visit to health facilities for ANC
  No 388 308 (79.4) 1.00 1.00
  Yes 623 536 (86.0) 1.08 (1.00–1.17) 1.07 (0.98–1.16)
 Maternal knowledge on exclusive breastfeeding for infants up to 6 months of age
  No 368 285 (77.5) 1.00 1.00
  Yes 643 559 (86.9) 1.08 (1.02–1.15)* 1.04 (0.98–1.09)
 Women’s empowerment (scale: 0–14, Md = 5)
  ≤  8 (less empowered) 826 677 (82.0) 1.00 1.00
  ≥  9 (more empowered) 185 167 (90.3) 1.07 (1.00–1.14)* 1.08 (1.01–1.15)*
 Had abortions in lifetime
  No 972 806 (82.9) 1.00 1.00
  Yes 39 38 (97.4) 1.12 (1.06–1.19)** 1.10 (1.02–1.17)*
 Had miscarriage/stillbirths in lifetime
  No 847 713 (84.2) 1.00 1.00
  Yes 164 131 (79.9) 0.94 (0.88–1.00) 0.93 (0.87–1.00)
Household factors
 Household head’s education
  None 484 381 (78.7) 1.00 1.00
  Some primary 189 159 (84.1) 1.06 (0.98–1.14) 1.01 (0.94–1.09)
  Secondary and above 338 304 (89.9) 1.12 (1.07–1.17)** 1.05 (1.00–1.10)
 Household wealth quintile
  1 (Poorest) 202 158 (78.2) 1.00 1.00
  2 198 156 (78.8) 1.02 (0.92–1.13) 1 (0.90–1.1)
  3 204 162 (79.4) 1.02 (0.94–1.10) 0.97 (0.90–1.06)
  4 204 183 (89.7) 1.17 (1.08–1.26)** 1.09 (1.01–1.19)*
  5 (Richest) 203 185 (91.1) 1.17 (1.10–1.25)** 1.08 (1.00–1.18)
 Occupation of household head
  Unemployede 122 107 (87.7) 1.00 1.00
  Wage employment 190 152 (80) 0.94 (0.86–1.03) 0.96 (0.89–1.05)
  Business/self-employment 210 176 (83.8) 0.97 (0.90–1.05) 0.94 (0.88–1.00)
  Salaried worker 101 88 (87.1) 0.98 (0.91–1.06) 0.91 (0.84–0.98)*
  Agriculture 387 320 (82.7) 0.94 (0.88–1.02) 0.91 (0.84–0.98)*
 Cultivable land size (in Ha)
  Landless (<  0.1) 421 343 (81.5) 1.00 1.00
  Small size (≥  0.1 & <  0.5) 260 216 (83.1) 1 (0.93–1.08) 1.06 (0.99–1.15)
  Large size (≥  0.5) 330 285 (86.4) 1.07 (1.01–1.14)* 1.12 (1.05–1.19)**
Contextual factors
 Agro-ecological zones
  Mountain 158 144 (91.1) 1.00
  Hill 256 231 (90.2)   0.99 (0.93–1.05)
  Terai 597 469 (78.6)   0.9 (0.83–0.97)*
 Ward infrastructure is more developed
  No 502 394 (78.5) 1.00 1.00
  Yes 509 450 (88.4) 1.09 (1.00–1.18)* 1.04 (0.96–1.13)
  1. aPrevalence ratio: a PR > 1 indicates feeding of colostrum is more likely and PR < 1 indicates that feeding of colostrum is less likely
  2. b*P-value < 0.05, **P-value < 0.001
  3. c(Model 2 shown in Additional file 2)
  4. dModel 3 included mother’s education and visit by FCHVs for ANC as a priori covariates plus all variables that were significant (p < 0.2) in the first set of multivariable models
  5. e“more highly trained healthcare providers” includes government health workers (MCHW/VHW, HA/AHW, Nurse/Midwife), doctors/pharmacists and NGO health workers. “Unemployed” includes student, non-earning occupation as well as non-working