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Table 2 Determinants of breastfeeding within one hour of birth among infants in Nepal, 2013a,b,c

From: Determinants of infant breastfeeding practices in Nepal: a national study

Determinants n (%) Breastfed within an hour
n (%)
Model 1
(Unadjusted PR)
PR (95% CI)
Model 3d
(Adjusted PR)
APR (95% CI)
Overall 1011 (100) 423 (41.8)   
Child factors
 Child’s gender
  Male 541 (53.5) 222(41.0) 1.00
  Female 470 (46.5) 201(42.8) 1.03 (0.91–1.18)  
 Child’s birth order
  First born 538 (53.2) 210 (39.0) 1.00
  Second or later born 473 (46.8) 213 (45.0) 1.18 (1.00,1.38)*  
 Child fed colostrum
  No 167 (16.5) 54 (32.3) 1.00 1.00
  Yes 844 (83.5) 369 (43.7) 1.32 (1.07,1.64)* 1.26 (1.04,1.54)*
 Child fed prelacteal feeds
  No 677 (67.3) 343 (50.9) 1.00 1.00
  Yes 329 (32.7) 78 (23.7) 0.47 (0.35,0.63)** 0.49 (0.36,0.66)**
 Predominant breastfeeding (Infant < 6 mo)
  No 196 (42.8) 75 (38.3) 1.00
  Yes 262 (57.2) 130 (50.0) 1.33 (1.01,1.74)*  
Maternal factors
 Mother’s education
  None 479 (47.4) 200 (41.8) 1.00 1.00
  Some primary 135 (13.4) 53 (39.3) 0.93 (0.72,1.2) 0.91 (0.70–1.19)
  Secondary and above 396 (39.2) 170 (42.9) 1.00 (0.87,1.16) 1.01 (0.84–1.21)
 Mother’s age (in years)
  15–19.9 149 (14.7) 68 (45.6) 1.00 1.00
  20–29.9 697 (68.9) 299 (42.9) 0.93 (0.79,1.09) 0.81 (0.68–0.95)*
  ≥  30 165 (16.3) 56 (33.9) 0.72 (0.53,0.97)* 0.61 (0.43–0.87)*
 Mother’s occupation
  Unemployed 773 (76.5) 305 (39.5) 1.00 1.00
  Agriculture 136 (13.5) 72 (52.9) 1.31 (1.04,1.64)* 1.28 (1.02–1.60)*
  Other employmente 102 (10.1) 46 (45.1) 1.10 (0.85,1.43) 1.09 (0.83–1.42)
 Visit by FCHVs for ANC
  No 909 (89.9) 382 (42) 1.00  
  Yes 102 (10.1) 41 (40.2) 0.98 (0.78,1.24) 0.99 (0.77–1.27)
 Visit by FCHVs for postnatal care
  No 903 (89.3) 371 (41.1) 1.00 1.00
  Yes 108 (10.7) 52 (48.2) 1.17 (0.94,1.45) 1.12 (0.91–1.37)
 Visit by more highly trained healthcare providerse for postnatal care
  No 959 (94.9) 408 (42.5) 1.00 1.00
  Yes 52 (5.1) 15 (28.9) 0.69 (0.49,0.99)* 0.72 (0.49–1.05)
 Maternal knowledge on exclusive breastfeeding for infants up to 6 months of age
  No 368 (36.4) 136 (37) 1.00 1.00
  Yes 643 (63.6) 287 (44.6) 1.17 (0.97,1.41) 1.19 (0.99–1.44)
 Number of live births given
  1 380 (37.7) 149 (39.2) 1.00 1.00
  > = 2 629 (62.3) 274 (43.6) 1.12 (0.96,1.30) 1.11 (0.85–1.43)
Household factors
 Ethnicity/Caste
  Upper caste 216 (21.4) 104 (48.2) 1.00 1.00
  Disadvantaged non-dalit Terai caste 341 (33.7) 137 (40.2) 0.95 (0.76,1.20) 1.02 (0.81–1.27)
  Janajatis 227 (22.5) 87 (38.3) 0.83 (0.67,1.04) 0.91 (0.73–1.14)
  Lower castee 227 (22.5) 95 (41.9) 0.93 (0.74,1.17) 0.95 (0.76–1.19)
 Household wealth quintile
  1 (Poorest) 202 (20) 89 (44.1) 1.00 1.00
  2 198 (19.6) 79 (39.9) 0.92 (0.73,1.14) 0.94 (0.75–1.18)
  3 204 (20.2) 93 (45.6) 1.03 (0.8,1.33) 1.07 (0.82–1.38)
  4 204 (20.2) 93 (45.6) 1.05 (0.82,1.34) 1.07 (0.79–1.45)
  5 (Richest) 203 (20.1) 69 (34.0) 0.77 (0.57,1.06) 0.79 (0.55–1.12)
 Occupation of household head
  Unemployede 122 (12.1) 51 (41.8) 1.00 1.00
  Wage employment 190 (18.8) 83 (43.7) 1.07 (0.83,1.39) 1.03 (0.81–1.33)
  Business/self-employment 210 (20.8) 72 (34.3) 0.82 (0.58,1.17) 0.80 (0.57–1.13)
  Salaried worker 101 (10) 57 (56.4) 1.32 (1.01,1.73)* 1.27 (0.94–1.71)
  Agriculture 387 (38.3) 160 (41.3) 0.99 (0.73,1.34) 0.88 (0.65–1.19)
Contextual factors
 Agro-ecological zones
  Mountain 158 (15.6) 77(48.7) 1.00
  Hill 256 (25.3) 111(43.4)   1.00 (0.79–1.26)
  Terai 597 (59.1) 235(39.4)   1.03 (0.78–1.36)
  1. aFor interpretation purposes, a PR > 1 indicates children are more likely to be breastfed within an hour of birth and PR < 1 indicates children are less likely
  2. b* P-value < 0.05, ** P-value < 0.001
  3. c(Model 2 shown in Additional file 1)
  4. dModel 3 included mother’s education and visit by FCHVs for ANC as a priori covariates plus all variables that were significant (p <  0.2) in the first set of multivariable models
  5. e“Other employment” included wage employment, salaried worker and Business/self-employment. “More highly trained healthcare providers” includes government health workers (MCHW/VHW, HA/AHW, Nurse/Midwife), doctors/pharmacists and NGO health workers. “Lower caste” includes Dalits and religious minorities. “Unemployed” includes student, non-earning occupation as well as non-working