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Table 1 General characteristics of study population and explanatory factors

From: Determinants of infant breastfeeding practices in Nepal: a national study

  n (%)
Child level factors (n = 1015)
 Child’s gender
  Male 543 (53.5)
  Female 472 (46.5)
 Child’s age (in months), mean (SD) 5.9 (3.4)
 Child’s age (in months)
  0–5.9 458 (45.1)
  6–11.9 557 (54.9)
 Birth order
  First born child 540 (53.2)
  Second or later born child 475 (46.8)
Maternal level factors (n = 1015)
 Mother’s age (in years), mean (SD) 24.4 (5.4)
 Mother’s age (in years)
  15–19.9 149 (14.7)
  20–29.9 700 (69.0)
  > = 30 166 (16.4)
 Mother’s education
  None 481 (47.4)
  Some primary 135 (13.3)
  Secondary and above 398 (39.3)
 Mother’s occupation
  Unemployed 775 (76.4)
  Agriculture 137 (13.5)
  Other 103 (10.2)
 Visit by FCHV for ANC
  No 913 (90.0)
  Yes 102 (10.1)
 Visit by more highly trained healthcare providers a for ANC
  No 976 (96.2)
  Yes 39 (3.8)
 Visit to health facilities for ANC
  No 390 (38.4)
  Yes 625 (61.6)
 Visit by FCHV for postnatal care
  No 907 (89.4)
  Yes 108 (10.6)
 Visit by more highly trained healthcare providers a for PNC
  No 963 (94.9)
  Yes 52 (5.1)
 Visit to health facilities for postnatal care
  No 663 (65.3)
  Yes 352 (34.7)
Maternal knowledge present on:
 Exclusive breastfeeding for infants up to 6 months of age
  No 368 (36.3)
  Yes 647 (63.7)
 Breastfeeding for children during diarrhea
  No 809 (79.7)
  Yes 206 (20.3)
  Mothers’ empowerment (mean, SD) 5.5 (3.1)
 Mothers’ empowerment (scale: 0–14, Median = 5)
  < = 8 (less empowered) 830 (81.8)
  > = 9 (more empowered) 185 (18.2)
Household level factors (n = 1015)
 Presence of father at home
  No 325 (32.0)
  Yes 690 (68.0)
 Father’s education (among those present at home)
  None 154 (22.3)
  Some primary 149 (21.6)
  Secondary and above 387 (56.1)
 Household head’s gender
  Male 808 (79.6)
  Female 207 (20.4)
 Household head’s education
  None 485 (47.8)
  Some primary 191 (18.8)
  Secondary and above 339 (33.4)
 Household head’s occupation
  Unemployed a 122 (12.0)
  Wage employment 190 (18.7)
  Business/self-employment 212 (20.9)
  Salaried worker 101 (10.0)
  Agriculture 389 (38.4)
 Ethnicity/Caste
  Upper caste (Brahmins, chhetris) 218 (21.5)
  Disadvantaged non-dalit Terai caste 341 (33.6)
  Janajatis 228 (22.5)
  Lower caste (Dalits, religious minorities) 228 (22.5)
 Household wealth quintile
  1 (Poorest) 203 (20.0)
  2 199 (19.6)
  3 204 (20.1)
  4 206 (20.3)
  5 (Richest) 203 (20.0)
 Father’s occupation (among those present at home)
  Unemployed a 19 (2.8)
  Wage employment 195 (28.3)
  Business/self-employment 178 (25.8)
  Salaried worker 124 (18.0)
  Agriculture 174 (25.2)
 Cultivable land size (in Ha)
  Landless (<  0.1) 424 (41.8)
  Small size (> = 0.1 & <  0.5) 261 (25.7)
  Large size (> = 0.5) 330 (32.5)
Contextual factors (n = 1015)
 Agro-ecological zones
  Mountain 160 (15.8)
  Hill 258 (25.4)
  Terai 597 (58.8)
 Ward infrastructure is more developed
  No 502 (49.5)
  Yes 513 (50.5)
Breastfeeding practices
 Prelacteal feeds given
  Not fed 677 (67.3)
  Fed 329 (32.7)
 Breastfed within one hour after birth
  No 588 (58.2)
  Yes 423 (41.8)
 Colostrum fed
  No 167 (16.5)
  Yes 844 (83.5)
 Predominant breastfeeding (children < 6 months) (n = 458)
  No 196 (42.8)
  Yes 262 (57.2)
  1. a“More highly trained healthcare providers” includes other govt health workers (MCHW/VHW, HA/AHW, Nurse/Midwife), doctors/pharmacists and NGO health workers; “Unemployed” includes student, non-earning occupation as well as non-working