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Table 3 Factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding during hospital stay in the urban population

From: Factors associated with a low prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding during hospital stay in urban and semi-rural areas of southern Vietnam

Characteristics   Yes (n = 364)   No (n = 3884)   Unadjusted    Adjusted  
n Frequency (%) n Frequency (%) OR (95% CI) p OR (95% CI) p
Household wealth (Ref: 1st quintile) 364   3883     <  0.001    <  0.001
 2nd quintile   41 (11)   269 (7) 0.50 (0.24, 1.10)   0.71 (0.32, 1.65)  
 3rd quintile   194 (53)   1463 (38) 0.43 (0.22, 0.91)   0.68 (0.33, 1.50)  
 4th quintile   58 (16)   863 (22) 0.22 (0.11, 0.47)   0.38 (0.18, 0.88)  
 5th quintile   60 (16)   1252 (32) 0.16 (0.08, 0.34)   0.29 (0.14, 0.68)  
Mother
 Primiparous 364 176 (48) 3883 2195 (57) 0.72 (0.58, 0.89) 0.003 0.86 (0.66, 1.12) 0.258
 Age a (years) 364 28 (24, 32) 3881 28 (24, 32) 1.00 (0.98, 1.02) 0.875 1.04 (1.01, 1.06) 0.003
 Ethnic (Ref: Kinh) 364   3883     0.036    0.109
 Chinese   11 (3)   235 (6) 0.48 (0.25, 0.85)   0.53 (0.26, 0.98)  
 Other   5 (1)   48 (1) 1.08 (0.37, 2.48)   0.74 (0.24, 1.88)  
 High education 364 114 (31) 3883 1578 (41) 0.67 (0.53, 0.84) <  0.001 1.09 (0.81, 1.46) 0.574
 Currently married 364 344 (95) 3883 3827 (99) 0.25 (0.15, 0.43) <  0.001 0.23 (0.11, 0.50) <  0.001
 In-paid employment mother 364 208 (57) 3883 2529 (65) 0.71 (0.57, 0.89) 0.003 0.81 (0.64, 1.04) 0.096
 Living with others 364 344 (95) 3883 3751 (97) 0.61 (0.38, 1.01) 0.054 1.35 (0.70, 2.84) 0.386
 Complication during pregnancy 364 49 (13) 3884 901 (23) 0.52 (0.37, 0.70) <  0.001 0.53 (0.38, 0.74) <  0.001
 HIV and/or Hepatitis B infection 364 16 (4) 3884 274 (7) 0.61 (0.35, 0.98) 0.042 0.53 (0.30, 0.87) 0.011
Father
 Ethnic (Ref: Kinh) 363   3879     0.006    0.095
 Chinese   27 (7)   374 (10) 0.77 (0.50, 1.14)   0.94 (0.60, 1.44)  
 Other   12 (3)   45 (1) 2.85 (1.43, 5.26)   2.36 (1.08, 4.84)  
 High education 363 145 (40) 3879 1786 (46) 0.78 (0.63, 0.97) 0.025 1.25 (0.94, 1.64) 0.120
 In-paid employment father 363 359 (99) 3879 3851 (99) 0.65 (0.25, 2.21) 0.451 0.86 (0.29, 3.17) 0.796
Infant
 Premature at birth 364 7 (2) 3884 142 (4) 0.52 (0.22, 1.03) 0.063 0.37 (0.15, 0.81) 0.011
 Male 364 187 (51) 3884 2061 (53) 0.93 (0.75, 1.16) 0.537 0.93 (0.74, 1.16) 0.510
 Caesarean section 364 19 (5) 3884 1696 (44) 0.07 (0.04, 0.11) <  0.001 0.07 (0.04, 0.11) <  0.001
 Low birthweight 364 23 (6) 3884 176 (5) 1.42 (0.89, 2.18) 0.140 2.02 (1.18, 3.33) 0.011
 Neonatal complication at birth 364 5 (1) 3884 213 (5) 0.24 (0.09, 0.53) <  0.001 0.20 (0.07, 0.47) <  0.001
  1. adescribed in median (interquartile)
  2. OR: odds ratio; 95% CI: 95% confidence interval. OR, 95% CI and p values were estimated using univariable (unadjusted) and multivariable (adjusted) logistic regression models
  3. High education: completed lower secondary school (> 9 years of education), Premature at birth: gestational age at birth < 37 weeks, Low birthweight: birthweight < 2500 g