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Table 3 Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis of covariates of breastfeeding 5 to 9 weeks postpartum

From: Investigating factors associated with success of breastfeeding in first-time mothers undergoing epidural analgesia: a prospective cohort study

Characteristics Unadjusted OR (95% CI) P – value Adjusted OR (95% CI) P – value
Age (years) 1.036 (0.975, 1.102) 0.2545   
Mode of delivery (Ref: Normal vaginal delivery)   0.2180+   
 Instrument-assisted delivery 0.618 (0.338, 1.132) 0.0872   
 Emergency Caesarean Section 1.136 (0.508, 2.541) 0.3528   
Race (Ref: Chinese)   0.0217+   0.0052+
 Indian 0.727 (0.276, 1.920)   0.557 (0.203, 1.528) 0.7416
 Malay 0.353 (0.176, 0.708)   0.294 (0.140, 0.618) 0.0668
 Others 0.496 (0.226, 1.089)   0.362 (0.157, 0.833) 0.3129
State-Trait Anxiety Inventory
 At baseline
  State anxiety score 0.977 (0.951, 1.004) 0.1002 0.968 (0.940, 0.997) 0.0304
  Trait anxiety score 0.973 (0.935, 1.011) 0.1628   
  Total score 0.985 (0.969, 1.003) 0.0977   
 At 5–9 weeks postpartum
  State anxiety score 0.993 (0.964, 1.022) 0.6244   
  Trait anxiety score 0.982 (0.948, 1.018) 0.3180   
  Total score 0.994 (0.977, 1.010) 0.4501   
 Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale
  At baseline 0.961 (0.902, 1.025) 0.2306   
  At 5–9 weeks postpartum 0.966 (0.905, 1.031) 0.3002   
Short-form McGill Pain Questionnaire 0.996 (0.988, 1.003) 0.2472   
Perceived Stress Scale 0.985 (0.929, 1.044) 0.6133   
Pain Catastrophizing Scale
 Rumination score 0.977 (0.919, 1.039) 0.4576   
 Magnification score 0.907 (0.830, 0.992) 0.0332   
 Helplessness score 0.982 (0.940, 1.025) 0.4010   
 Total score 0.989 (0.968, 1.010) 0.2896   
Complications experienced intrapartum (Ref: No)
 Premature rupture of membranes 0.592 (0.303, 1.155) 0.1243   
 Maternal pyrexia 0.808 (0.450, 1.449) 0.4742   
 Non-reassuring fetal status 1.395 (0.516, 3.774) 0.5115   
 Failure to progress 0.565 (0.278, 1.149) 0.1150   
Intrapartum blood loss per 100 ml 0.789 (0.646, 0.962) 0.0191 0.756 (0.614, 0.930) 0.0081
Occurrence of fetal anomalies (Ref: No) 0.179 (0.039, 0.820) 0.0267 0.148 (0.030, 0.722) 0.0182
Use of support services on breastfeeding
 Help from lactation consultant during hospital stay (Ref: No) 1.772 (0.977, 3.214) 0.0596   
 Help from ward nurse during hospital stay (Ref: No) 1.304 (0.666, 2.553) 0.4382   
 Attended lactation clinic (Ref: No) 3.105 (0.397, 24.306) 0.2804   
 Contacted hospital helpline (Ref: No) 0.620 (0.118, 3.266) 0.5725   
 Did you receive any of these support services on breastfeeding or giving breast milk to your baby? (Ref: No) 3.160 (1.217, 8.207) 0.0181 3.304 (1.210, 9.020) 0.0197
Satisfaction with birth experience (Ref: Satisfied)   0.3410+   
 Extremely satisfied 0.970 (0.449, 2.092) 0.5452   
 Very satisfied 1.106 (0.575, 2.127) 0.2763   
 Unsatisfied 1.608 (0.448, 5.773) 0.1800   
 Very unsatisfied 0.169 (0.027, 1.057) 0.0406