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Table 1 Characteristics of participants in Kassala, Eastern Sudan

From: Assessment of initiation of breastfeeding practice in Kassala, Eastern Sudan: a community-based study

Variables Total Initiation of breastfeeding Early (n = 218) Delayed (n = 32)
Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Odds Ratio (95% Confidence Interval) P-value
Maternal age, years 27.1 (5.7) 26.9(5.65) 28.3 (5.8) 1.04(0.97, 1.11) 0.186
Child age, months 11.9 (6.9) 12.2 (6.8) 9.2 (6.86) 0.93(0.88, 0.99) 0.019
Birth order 2.4(1.5) 2.4(1.5) 2.0(1.46) 0.81(0.60, 1.09) 0.179
Number of children < 5 years 1.7(0.7) 1.7(0.73) 1.4(0.66) 0.45(0.24, 0.85) 0.012
Number of breastfeeding per day 7.4(3.4) 7.5(3.58) 6.2(1.68) 0.87(0.76, 0.99) 0.442
  N % N % N % OR (95% CI) P-value
Child gender Male 136 54.4 111 81.6 25 18.4 0.29 (0.12, 0.70) 0.004
Female 114 45.6 107 93.9 7 6.1
Residence Rural 103 41.2 95 92.2 8 7.8 2.29 (0.98, 5.33) 0.054
Urban 147 58.8 123 83.7 24 16.3
Living with extended family Yes 126 50.4 109 86.5 17 13.5 0.88 (0.42, 1.85) 0.741
No 124 49.6 109 87.9 15 12.1
Mode of delivery Vaginal 207 82.8 185 89.4 22 10.6 2.54 (1.10,5.86) 0.024
Caesarean 43 17.2 33 76.7 10 23.3
Place of delivery Institutional 136 54.4 114 83.8 22 16.2 0.49 (0.22, 1.10) 0.081
Home 114 45.6 104 91.2 10 8.8
Received education on breastfeeding by healthcare personnel Yes 146 58.4 120 82.2 26 17.8 0.29 (0.11, 0.73) 0.006
No 104 41.6 98 94.2 6 5.8
Faced breastfeeding difficulties Yes 55 22 50 90.9 5 9.1 1.44 (0.52, 3.96) 0.472
No 195 78 168 86.2 27 13.8
Maternal education <Secondary level 171 68.4 149 87.1 22 12.9 0.98 (0.44, 2.18) 0.964
≥Secondary level 79 31.6 69 87.3 10 12.7
Paternal education <Secondary level 145 58.0 133 91.7 12 8.3 2.60 (1.21, 5.60) 0.012
≥Secondary level 105 42.0 85 81.0 20 19.0
Maternal medical disorders Yes 23 9.2 16 69.6 7 30.4 0.28 (0.10, 0.75) 0.008
No 227 90.8 202 89.0 25 11.0
Maternal occupation Housewives 193 77.2 165 85.5 28 14.5 0.44 (0.14, 1.32) 0.137
Employed 57 22.8 53 93.0 4 7.0
Paternal occupation Employed 124 49.6 116 93.6 8 6.5 3.41 (1.46, 7.92) 0.003
Non-employed 126 50.4 102 81.0 24 19.0
Child hospitalization Yes 88 35.2 82 93.2 6 6.8 2.45 (0.96, 6.22) 0.052
No 162 64.8 136 84.0 26 16.0