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Table 1 - Comparison of background variables between the case and control groups

From: Deep breast pain during lactation: a case-control study in Sweden investigating the role of Candida albicans

  Case group n 35 (%) Control group n 35 (%) p - value
Mother’s age in years in mean (range) 30 (19–42) 33 (23–42) 0.07
Highest education level:    
 Primary school 1 0  
 High school 12 (34.3) 10 (28.6) 0.73
 University / College 22 (62.9) 25 (71.5) 0.61
Infant age at 1st contact in weeks in median (range) 5 (2–36) 9 (3–24) 0.20
Parity: primipara 20 (57.1) 9 (25.7) 0.02*
Birth: vaginal 31 (88.6) 32 (91.4) 1.00
Type 1 diabetes 0 0  
Gestational diabetes, last pregnancy 1 (2.9) 0  
Vaginal Candida infection during pregnancy 5 (14.3) 3 (8.6) 1.00
Antibiotics during birth 7 (20.0) 6 (17.0) 1.00
Antibiotics after birth 5 (14.3) 4 (11.4) 1.00
Previous breastfeeding 15 (42.9) 26 (74.3) 0.02*
History of Candida in breasts during previous breastfeeding 5 (14.3) 2 (5.7) 0.43
  1. Student’s t-test and Pearson’s Chi-2 test
  2. *Statistically significant at < 0.05 level