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Table 1 Characteristics of study sample (n = 396)

From: Delayed initiation of breastfeeding in Bukavu, South Kivu, eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo: a cross-sectional study

Variables (n = 396) Rural
n (%)
  Urban
n (%)
  Total  
Maternity ward 211 (53.3)   185 (46.7)   396 (100)  
Mother’s age [median (range)]   25 (17 – 46)   28 (17 – 43) 27 (17 – 46)
  < 18 7 (3.3)   5 (2.7)   12 (3.0)  
 18 – 35 178 (84.4)   154 (83.2)   332 (83.8)
  ≥ 35 26 (12.3)   26 (14.1)   52 (13.2)
Inter pregnancy interval   26 (12 – 97)   27 (11 – 108)   26 (11 – 108)
  < 24 months 50 (29.9)   50 (36.2)   100 (32.8)  
  ≥ 24 months 117 (70.1)   88 (63.8)   205 (67.2)
Marital status
 Married 160 (75.8)   103 (55.7)   263 (66.4)  
 Unmarried 51 (24.2)   82 (44.3)   133 (33.6)
Mother’s schooling status
 Unschooled 99 (46.9)   12 (6.5)   111 (28.0)  
 Primary school 69 (32.8)   32 (17.3)   101 (25.5)
 Secondary school 37 (17.5)   90 (48.6)   127 (32.0)
 University studies 2 (0.9)   46 (24.9)   48 (12.1)
 Technical school 4 (1.9)   5 (2.7)   9 (2.4)
Socioeconomic status
 Low 204 (96.7)   51 (27.6)   255 (64.4)  
 Medium 4 (1.9)   71 (38.4)   75 (18.9)
 Good 3 (1.4)   63 (34.1)   66 (16.7)
Parity (Mean ± SD)   4 ± 3   3 ± 2   4 ± 2
 Primipara 40 (19.0)   49 (26.5)   89 (22.5)  
 Multipara 171 (81.0)   136 (73.5)   307 (77.5)
Number of PCV (Mean ± SD)   3 ± 1   3 ± 1   3 ± 1
  < 3 78 (37.0)   48 (25.9)   126 (31.8)  
  ≥ 3 133 (63.0)   137 (74.1)   270 (68.2)
HIV Serology
 Positive 9 (4.3)   2 (1.0)   11 (2.8)  
 Negative 168 (79.6)   183 (99.0)   351 (88.6)
 Unknown 34 (16.1)   0   34 (9.2)
Mode of delivery
 Vaginal delivery 146 (69.2)   157 (84.9)   303 (76.5)  
 Cesarean delivery 65 (30.8)   28 (15.1)   93 (23.5)
Birth weight [median (range)] (kg)   3.1 (1.8 – 4.8)   3.2 (1.9 – 5.2)   3.2 (1.2 – 5.2)
  < 2.5 20 (9.5)   15 (8.1)   35 (8.8)  
 2.5 – 4.0 183 (16.7)   160 (86.5)   343 (86.6)
  ≥ 4.0 8 (3.8)   10 (5.4)   18 (4.6)
Gestational age
 At term 199 (94.8)   171 (92.4)   370 (93.4)  
 Preterm 11 (5.2)   15 (7.6)   26 (6.6)
Gender
 Male 97 (46.0)   95 (51.4)   192 (48.5)  
 Female 114 (54.0)   90 (48.6)   204 (51.5)
  1. PCV prenatal care visits, SD standard deviation, HIV human immunodepression virus