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Table 2 Association between socio-demographic, biomedical, and psychosocial factors and breastfeeding initiation (n = 935)

From: Determinants of breastfeeding initiation among mothers in Sydney, Australia: findings from a birth cohort study

Variable Breastfeeding Initiationa Univariate odds ratiob
Yes No   
N (%) N (%) OR 95%CI
Sociodemographic factors
 Maternal age (years)
   < 25 84 (90.3) 9 (9.7) 1.00  
  25–29 235 (92.2) 20 (7.8) 1.26 0.55, 2.87
  30–34 323 (92.0) 28 (8.0) 1.24 0.56, 2.72
   ≥ 35 218 (92.4) 18 (7.6) 1.30 0.56, 3.00
 Maternal education
   < Year 12 114 (80.9) 27 (19.1) 1.00  
  Year 12 completed 182 (87.5) 26 (12.5) 1.66 0.92, 2.98
  College/TAFE 169 (94.4) 10 (5.6) 4.00 1.86, 8.59**
  University 395 (97.1) 12 (2.9) 7.80 3.83, 15.88**
 Marital status
  Married 689 (93.9) 45 (6.1) 1.00  
  Living with a partner/ De facto 98 (89.1) 12 (10.9) 0.53 0.27, 1.04
  Single mother 73 (80.2) 18 (19.8) 0.26 0.15, 0.48**
 Mother’s occupation
  Home duties/ student 148 (87.1) 22 (12.9) 1.00  
  Unskilled 152 (89.9) 17 (10.1) 1.33 0.68, 2.60
  Sales/Clerical 268 (91.2) 26 (8.8) 1.53 0.84, 2.80
  Managers 58 (95.1) 3 (4.9) 2.87 0.83, 9.97
  Professionals 234 (97.1) 7 (2.9) 4.97 2.07, 11.92**
 Mother’s country of birth
  Australia 398 (91.3) 38 (8.7) 1.00  
  China 55 (96.5) 2 (3.5) 2.63 0.62, 11.19
  Vietnam 117 (88.6) 15 (11.4) 0.74 0.40, 1.40
  Asia other 109 (98.2) 2 (1.8) 5.20 1.24, 21.91*
  Middle East/Africa 77 (95.1) 4 (4.9) 1.84 0.64, 5.30
  Others 103 (88.0) 14 (12.0) 0.70 0.37, 1.34
 Partner’s country of birth
  Australia 327 (91.1) 32 (8.9) 1.00  
  China 41 (97.6) 1 (2.4) 4.01 0.53, 30.14
  Vietnam 103 (89.6) 12 (10.4) 0.84 0.42, 1.69
  Asia other 101 (96.2) 4 (3.8) 2.47 0.85, 7.15
  Middle East/Africa 93 (96.9) 3 (3.1) 3.03 0.91, 10.13
  Others 110 (91.7) 10 (8.3) 1.08 0.51, 2.26
 Mother intended to be employed/study at 6 months post-partum
  No/Undecided 672 (91.4) 63 (8.6) 1.00  
  Yes 188 (94.0) 12 (6.0) 1.47 0.78, 2.78
 Index for relative socioeconomic disadvantage
  Least disadvantaged 48 (96.0) 2 (4.0) 1.00  
  2nd quintile 223 (93.7) 15 (6.3) 0.62 0.14, 2.80
  3rd quintile 77 (96.3) 3 (3.8) 1.07 0.17, 6.63
  4th quintile 162 (88.5) 21 (11.5) 0.32 0.07, 1.42
  Most disadvantaged 350 (91.1) 34 (8.9) 0.43 0.10, 1.84
Biomedical factors
 Parity
  Primiparous 444 (94.9) 24 (5.1) 1.00  
  Multiparous 416 (89.1) 51 (10.9) 0.44 0.27, 0.73*
 Infant gender
  Female 421 (91.9) 37 (8.1) 1.00  
  Male 439 (92.0) 38 (8.0) 1.02 0.63, 1.63
 Infant birth weight
  Average or greater (≥ 2500 g) 819 (92.1) 70 (7.9) 1.00  
  Low (<2500 g) 41 (89.1) 5 (10.9) 0.70 0.27, 1.83
 Method of delivery
  Vaginal 618 (94.6) 35 (5.4) 1.00  
  Caesarean 242 (85.8) 40 (14.2) 0.34 0.21, 0.55**
 Smoking status of the mother during pregnancy
  No 821 (92.9) 63 (7.1) 1.00  
  Yes 39 (76.5) 12 (23.5) 0.25 0.12, 0.50**
 Alcohol drinking status of the mother during pregnancy
  No 785 (93.1) 58 (6.9) 1.00  
  Yes 75 (81.5) 17 (18.5) 0.33 0.18, 0.59**
Psychosocial factors
 Partner prefers breastfeeding
  No or ambivalent 204 (82.3) 44 (17.7) 1.00  
  Yes 562 (97.7) 13 (2.3) 9.32 4.92, 17.67**
 Infant feeding decision made before pregnancy
  No 128 (87.1) 19 (12.9) 1.00  
  Yes 732 (92.9) 56 (7.1) 1.94 1.12, 3.37*
  1. OR Odds ratio, 95%CI 95% confidence interval
  2. a The total of the categories do not always add up to 935 due to missing or incomplete data for some items
  3. b The univariate odds ratio indicates the likelihood of being breastfed ever
  4. * p < 0.05 ** p < 0.001