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Table 2 Summary, Quality Assessment, and Study Design of Primary School Articles Reviewed

From: Stakeholder views of breastfeeding education in schools: a systematic mixed studies review of the literature

   Study population Study quality Questionnaire
First author & year Country N
(% female)
Age (years) or class type Type
(MMAT rating)
Designed by & setting Topics covered
Angell [23], 2011 England 56 (48) Age 5 to 11 Qualitative
(1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4)
Researcher led draw, write, tell. Group pictures, individual child-led description of pictures Attitude
Bottaro [47], 2009 Brazil 564 (50) Age 9 to 17 (5th grade) Quantitative randomized
(2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4)
Researcher designed questionnaire. Self-administered in classroom in the presence of researcher / some questions as vignettes Knowledge
Attitude
Breast milk fed
Personal exposure
Public breastfeeding
Costa [46], 2006 Brazil 32 (56) Age 7 to 12 Quantitative
non-randomized
(3.3, 3.4)
Researcher designed questionnaire. Self-administered Knowledge
Attitude
Intention
Fujimori [8], 2008 Brazil 503 (54) Mean age 11.7 Quantitative
non-randomized
(3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4)
Researcher designed questionnaire. Self-administered, teacher supervised Knowledge
Personal exposure
Sources of information
Education in schools
Galvao [9], 2011 Portugal 1078 (46) Age 7 to 12 Quantitative descriptive
(4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4)
Researcher designed questionnaire. Self-administered, teacher supervised, in classroom Attitude
Intention
Breast milk fed
Personal exposure
Sources of information
Russell [24], 2004 Scotland 23 (61) Age 6 Mixed methods
(1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4)
(4.1, 4.2, 4.3,4.4)
(5.1, 5.2)
Researcher designed questionnaire to parents administered at home. Focus groups with children led by two experienced facilitators Knowledge
Attitude
Breast milk fed
Personal exposure
Public breastfeeding
Sources of information
  1. The Mixed Method Appraisal Tool (MMAT) was used to evaluate the articles in the review. Listed are the criteria met for each study based on its methodological category. See the MMAT appraisal checklist for full explanation of criteria [13]
  2. • Qualitative (1.1 to 1.4)
  3. • Quantitative randomized controlled (2.1 to 2.4)
  4. • Quantitative non-randomized (3.1 to 3.4)
  5. • Quantitative descriptive (4.1 to 4.4)
  6. • Mixed methods studies include both the qualitative criteria and the appropriate quantitative criteria in addition to criteria specific for mixed methods studies (5.1 to 5.3)
  7. Knowledge: Specific topics including mechanics or immune benefits of nursing, with correct or incorrect answers
  8. Attitude: Attitudes about ease, acceptance, beliefs about benefits, feelings about breastfeeding or breastfeeding education
  9. Intention: Goals for future breastfeeding or support for breastfeeding partner
  10. Breast milk fed: Participant nursed as infant
  11. Personal exposure: Whether participant has seen others feed a baby by bottle or breast
  12. In public: Attitude about breastfeeding in public settings
  13. Sources of information: Where participant learned about breastfeeding
  14. Education in schools: Whether participant desires more education or feels education should be offered in school