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Table 1 Summary, Quality Assessment, and Study Design of Teacher Articles Reviewed

From: Stakeholder views of breastfeeding education in schools: a systematic mixed studies review of the literature

   Study population Study quality Questionnaire
First author & year Country N
(% female)
Age or class type Type
(MMAT rating)
Designed by & setting Topics covered
Al-Binali [17], 2012 Saudi Arabia 384 (100) 61.1% primary teacher, 23.2% intermediate school teacher,
12.8% high school teacher, all teachers parent to a child < 5yo
Quantitative
descriptive
(4.1, 4.2, 4.3. 4.4)
Researcher designed, self-administered in the classroom Knowledge
Attitude
Intention
Education in schools
Arif [18], 2002 Pakistan 375 (100) 125 low SES
125 mod SES
125 high SES
Quantitative
descriptive
(4.1, 4.2, 4.3. 4.4)
Researcher designed questionnaire, self-administered in the presence of researcher Knowledge
Attitude
Egbuonu [14], 2004 Nigeria 84 (not given) Home economics teachers Quantitative
descriptive
(4.1, 4.4)
Researcher designed questionnaire at National Diversification and Lactation Management workshop for home economics teachers Knowledge
Kapil [20], 1992 India 62 (100) Female married teachers Quantitative
descriptive
(4.1, 4.4)
Researcher designed questionnaire, read out loud and explained collectively Knowledge
Attitude
Parrilla Rodriguez [15], 2001 Puerto Rico 125 (89.6) Health teachers Quantitative
descriptive
(4.1, 4.2, 4.3. 4.4)
Researcher designed questionnaire based on literature, self-administered at the beginning of breastfeeding workshop Knowledge
Attitude
Personal experience
Public breastfeeding
Singh [16], 1990 India 100 (100) Recently graduated teachers Quantitative
descriptive
(4.4)
Researcher designed questionnaire, self-administered Knowledge
Attitude
Spear [21], 2010 United States 107 (79) 53.3% teachers, 1.9% guidance counselor, 44.9% nurses from elementary, middle, and high school Mixed methods
(1.2)
(4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4) (5.1, 5.2)
Researcher designed questionnaire modified from previous study [43], self-administered through place of employment Attitude
Intention
Breast milk fed
Public breastfeeding
Sources of information
Education in schools
Veghari [19], 2011 Northern Iran 745 (46) Primary school teachers Quantitative
descriptive
(4.1, 4.2, 4.4)
Researcher designed questionnaire, unknown administration Knowledge
  1. The Mixed Method Appraisal Tool (MMAT) was used to evaluate the articles in the review. Listed are the criteria met for each study based on its methodological category. See the MMAT appraisal checklist for full explanation of criteria [13]
  2. • Qualitative (1.1 to 1.4)
  3. • Quantitative randomized controlled (2.1 to 2.4)
  4. • Quantitative non-randomized (3.1 to 3.4)
  5. • Quantitative descriptive (4.1 to 4.4)
  6. • Mixed methods studies include both the qualitative criteria and the appropriate quantitative criteria in addition to criteria specific for mixed methods studies (5.1 to 5.3)
  7. Knowledge: Specific topics including mechanics or immune benefits of nursing, with correct or incorrect answers
  8. Attitude: Attitudes about ease, acceptance, beliefs about benefits, feelings about breastfeeding or breastfeeding education
  9. Intention: Goals for future breastfeeding or support for breastfeeding partner
  10. Breast milk fed: Participant nursed as infant
  11. Personal exposure: Whether participant has seen others feed a baby by bottle or breast
  12. In public: Attitude about breastfeeding in public settings