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Table 2 Breastfeeding challenges reported by participants (n = 240)

From: Challenges and predictors of exclusive breastfeeding among mothers attending the child welfare clinic at a regional hospital in Ghana: a descriptive cross-sectional study

  Total
(n = 240)
M (SD)
EBF
(n = 160)
M (SD)
Non-EBF
(n = 80)
M (SD)
EBF
Median (IQR)
Non-EBF
Median (IQR)
P - value
Worry about breastmilk alone not meeting the nutritional needs of baby 3.43 (1.35) 3.40 (1.32) 3.50 (1.41) 4 (2–4) 4 (2–5) 0.443
Short Maternity Leave Period 3.41 (1.29) 3.44 (1.29) 3.35 (1.30) 3 (3–5) 3 (3–5) 0.744
Sociocultural pressure to introduce water and artificial feeds 3.39 (1.28) 3.34 (1.31) 3.50 (1.23) 4 (2–4) 4 (2–5) 0.367
Difficulty combining work and breastfeeding 3.18 (1.30) 3.42 (1.34) 2.68 (1.07) 4 (2–5) 3 (2–3) 0.000
Emotional stress 3.10 (1.19) 3.28 (1.13) 2.75 (1.23) 3 (2–4) 3 (2–4) 0.001
Lack of support from family, friends and society 2.74 (1.35) 2.86 (1.40) 2.50 (1.23) 2 (2–4) 2 (2–4) 0.060
Lack of support from healthcare professionals 2.66 (1.21) 2.76 (1.22) 2.45 (1.17) 3 (2–4) 2 (2–3) 0.040
Low breastmilk production 2.63 (1.21) 2.56 (1.16) 2.78 (1.28) 2 (2–3) 2 (2–4) 0.263
Cracked or sore nipples 2.55 (1.24) 2.49 (1.17) 2.68 (1.36) 2 (2–4) 2 (1.25–4) 0.390
Breast engorgement 2.55 (1.24) 2.49 (1.17) 2.68 (1.36) 2 (2–4) 2 (1.25–4) 0.390
Shyness when breastfeeding in public 2.05 (1.23) 2.08 (1.27) 2.00 (1.15) 2 (1–2) 2 (1–2) 0.781
  1. Mann Whitney’s U test was used to examine differences in the challenges experiences by the mothers who practised EBF and those who used mixed/formula feeding, as well as their statistical significance
  2. M Mean, SD Standard Deviation, IQR Interquartile Range