Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 1 Maternal and infant characteristics (n = 240)

From: Challenges and predictors of exclusive breastfeeding among mothers attending the child welfare clinic at a regional hospital in Ghana: a descriptive cross-sectional study

  Total (%)
n = 240
EBF (%)
n = 160
Non-EBF (%)
n = 80
p - value
Maternal age (years)
18–24 78 (32.5) 46 (59.0) 32 (41.0) 0.008a
25–31 106 (44.2) 72 (67.9) 34 (32.1)
32–38 52 (21.7) 40 (76.9) 12 (23.1)
39–45 4 (1.7) 2 (50) 2 (50)
Mean age (SD) 27.72 (5.13) 28.38 (5.16) 26.40 (4.84)
Marital status
Single 46 (19.2) 26 (56.5) 20 (43.5) 0.104b
Married 194 (80.8) 134 (69.1) 60 (30.9)
Religion     0.131b
Christian 184 (76.7) 118 (64.1) 66 (35.9)
Islamic 56 (23.3) 42 (75.0) 14 (25.0)
Educational level
None 4 (1.7) 0 (0.0) 4 (100.0) 0.013c
Basic 118 (49.2) 74 (62.7) 44 (37.3)
Secondary 74 (30.8) 54 (73.0) 20 (27.0)
Tertiary 44 (18.3) 32 (72.7) 12 (27.3)
Occupation
Unemployed 42 (17.5) 18 (42.9) 24 (57.1) 0.004b
Self-employed 116 (48.3) 84 (72.4) 32 (27.6)
Privately employed 46 (19.2) 32 (69.6) 14 (30.4)
Publicly employed 36 (15.0) 26 (72.2) 10 (27.8)
Sex of infant
Male 116 (48.3) 74 (63.8) 42 (36.2) 0.361b
Female 124 (51.7) 86 (69.4) 38 (30.6)  
Age of infant (months)
3–6 142 (59.2) 114 (80.3) 28 (19.7) 0.000a
7–9 98 (40.8) 46 (46.9) 52 (53.1)  
Mean age (SD) 5.79 (2.17)    
  1. Mann Whitney U test was used to examine differences between the EBF and the non-EBF group as the dependent variable (BF challenges) was ordinal and not normally distributed
  2. Chi-square test of independence was used to determine the association between categorical variables and their statistical significance when cell counts within each cell was greater than 5
  3. Fisher’s exact test using the Monte Carlo approach was used to determine the association between categorical variables and their statistical significance when cell counts within each cell was less than 5 for tables larger than 2*2
  4. aMann Whitney U test; bChi square test of independence; cFisher’s exact test using the Monte Carlo approach for tables larger than 2*2