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Table 2 Summary of included studies

From: Early initiation of breastfeeding: a systematic literature review of factors and barriers in South Asia

Serial number Source Study setting Outcomes – reported factors or barriers Study methods Quality grading
1 Dibley et al., 2010 [43] Bangladesh, India, Nepal and Sri Lanka Delivery by caesarean section Home delivery No antenatal check-up No decision-making participation Lack of access to media Quantitative cross sectional survey: secondary analysis of DHS Moderate
2 Haider et al., 2010 [41] Dhaka, Bangladesh Lack of knowledge No milk secretion Traditional belief Mother’s ill-health Baby’s ill-health Grandmothers’ decision Midwife discouraged Lack of support Quantitative cross-sectional survey. Qualitative Weak quantitative and moderate qualitative
3 Parveen et al., 2012 [39] Haryana, India Custom Mother’s illness No milk secretion Quantitative cross-sectional survey Weak
4 Kaushal et al., 2005 [44] Haryana, India Custom Quantitative cross-sectional survey. Qualitative Weak quantitative and qualitative
5 Badruddin et al., 1997 [37] Karachi, Pakistan Mother unable to sit Caesarean section delivery Night time High BP of mother Quantitative: longitudinal design. Qualitative Weak quantitative and moderate qualitative
6 Dihidar et al., 2002 [33] Calcutta, India Living in rural area Quantitative cross sectional survey Weak
7 Senarath et al., 2012 [25] Sri Lanka Male child Low birth weight Home delivery Caesarean section delivery Rural Geography: North Central Mother’s age15-19 years Birth order; first birth No previous birth Living in Sabaragamuwa Quantitative cross-sectional survey: secondary analysis of DHS 2006-07 Moderate
8 Mihrshahi et al., 2010 [29] Bangladesh No maternal education No education of husband Birth order > 5 Home delivery No antenatal check-ups Mothers not watching television Poorest household No decision-making participation Geography: lowest in Barisal Quantitative cross-sectional survey: secondary analysis of DHS 2004 Moderate
9 Pandey et al., 2010 [28] Nepal Caesarean section delivery Delivery assistance from health professionals compared to TBAs No participation in decision making Living in mountainous region Quantitative cross-sectional survey: secondary analysis of DHS 2006 Moderate
10 Seranath et al., 2010 [35] Sri Lanka Birth order; first birth Caesarean section delivery No antenatal visits by midwife Geography: Colombo feeder area Quantitative cross-sectional survey: secondary analysis of DHS 2000 Moderate
11 Hazir et al., 2013 [27] Pakistan Working mothers Caesarean section delivery Residing in Sindh Province Quantitative cross-sectional survey: secondary analysis of DHS 2006/07 Moderate
12 Khadduri et al., 2008 [47] Haripur district, Pakistan Custom; tradition of prelacteal feeding Qualitative Moderate
13 Bandyopdahyay et al., 2009 [48] Rural Bengal, India Customs; perception that first milk is harmful to the baby; insufficient milk; that milk will only come after 48 h Qualitative Weak quantitative and moderate qualitative
14 Patel et al. 2010 [26] India No education Mothers aged 15–19 years No education of husband Home delivery Caesarean section delivery No antenatal check-ups Bivariate analysis No post natal check-ups Lowest wealth quintile No participation in decision making No media – radio, newspaper, television Geography: rural area; Central region Quantitative cross-sectional survey: secondary analysis of National Family Health Survey 2005-06 Moderate
15 Subedi et al. 2012 [31] Chepang community, Nepal Illiterate No antenatal check-ups Home delivery Quantitative cross- sectional survey Weak
16 Subba et al. 2007 [34] Pokhara, Nepal Nuclear family Smaller family size Quantitative cross-sectional survey Weak
17 Abdulraheem and Binns 2007 [42] Maldives (several islands) Caesarean section delivery Quantitative cross-sectional survey Weak
18 Athavale et al. 2004 [36] Urban Health Centre, Nagpur, India Caesarean section delivery Customs; prelacteal feeding, discarding colostrum Premature baby Birth order; first birth Quantitative cross-sectional survey Weak
19 Ekambaram et al. 2010 [38] Tertiary care hospital, South India Child was sick (34 %) Delay in shifting from labour room (25 %) Mother’s motivation/too tired: no consciousness (14 %) Baby was sleeping (5 %) Quantitative cross-sectional survey Weak
20 Moran et al. 2009 [49] Dhaka, Bangladesh Perceptions of no milk supply Quantitative cross-sectional survey. Qualitative Weak quantitative and moderate qualitative
21 Fikree et al. 2005 [46] Karachi, Pakistan Customs; traditional feeding practices and perceived health benefits Quantitative cross-sectional survey. Qualitative Moderate quantitative and moderate qualitative
22 Rahman et al. 2011 [30] Bangladesh No antenatal check-ups Poorest wealth quintile Delivery assistance by non-medically trained provider No Education Quantitative cross-sectional survey: analysis of Demographic and Health Survey 2007 Moderate
23 Ali et al. 2011 [32] Semi-urban Pakistan Lack of education Quantitative cross-sectional survey Weak
24 Digra et al. 2012 [45] Jammu, India Self-decision (22.2 %) Advice of priest (35 %) Advice of elderly lady in family (20.4 %) Quantitative cross-sectional survey Weak
25 Premani et al. 2011 [40] Karachi, Pakistan Mothers too tired after delivery Qualitative Weak