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Table 2 Summary of included studies

From: Early initiation of breastfeeding: a systematic literature review of factors and barriers in South Asia

Serial number Source Study setting Outcomes – reported factors or barriers Study methods Quality grading
1 Dibley et al., 2010 [43] Bangladesh, India, Nepal and Sri Lanka Delivery by caesarean section
Home delivery
No antenatal check-up
No decision-making participation
Lack of access to media
Quantitative cross sectional survey: secondary analysis of DHS Moderate
2 Haider et al., 2010 [41] Dhaka, Bangladesh Lack of knowledge
No milk secretion
Traditional belief
Mother’s ill-health
Baby’s ill-health
Grandmothers’ decision
Midwife discouraged
Lack of support
Quantitative cross-sectional survey. Qualitative Weak quantitative and moderate qualitative
3 Parveen et al., 2012 [39] Haryana, India Custom
Mother’s illness
No milk secretion
Quantitative cross-sectional survey Weak
4 Kaushal et al., 2005 [44] Haryana, India Custom Quantitative cross-sectional survey. Qualitative Weak quantitative and qualitative
5 Badruddin et al., 1997 [37] Karachi, Pakistan Mother unable to sit
Caesarean section delivery
Night time
High BP of mother
Quantitative: longitudinal design. Qualitative Weak quantitative and moderate qualitative
6 Dihidar et al., 2002 [33] Calcutta, India Living in rural area Quantitative cross sectional survey Weak
7 Senarath et al., 2012 [25] Sri Lanka Male child
Low birth weight
Home delivery
Caesarean section delivery
Rural
Geography: North Central
Mother’s age15-19 years
Birth order; first birth
No previous birth
Living in Sabaragamuwa
Quantitative cross-sectional survey: secondary analysis of DHS 2006-07 Moderate
8 Mihrshahi et al., 2010 [29] Bangladesh No maternal education
No education of husband
Birth order > 5
Home delivery
No antenatal check-ups
Mothers not watching television
Poorest household
No decision-making participation
Geography: lowest in Barisal
Quantitative cross-sectional survey: secondary analysis of DHS 2004 Moderate
9 Pandey et al., 2010 [28] Nepal Caesarean section delivery
Delivery assistance from health professionals compared to TBAs
No participation in decision making
Living in mountainous region
Quantitative cross-sectional survey: secondary analysis of DHS 2006 Moderate
10 Seranath et al., 2010 [35] Sri Lanka Birth order; first birth
Caesarean section delivery
No antenatal visits by midwife
Geography: Colombo feeder area
Quantitative cross-sectional survey: secondary analysis of DHS 2000 Moderate
11 Hazir et al., 2013 [27] Pakistan Working mothers
Caesarean section delivery
Residing in Sindh Province
Quantitative cross-sectional survey: secondary analysis of DHS 2006/07 Moderate
12 Khadduri et al., 2008 [47] Haripur district, Pakistan Custom; tradition of prelacteal feeding Qualitative Moderate
13 Bandyopdahyay et al., 2009 [48] Rural Bengal, India Customs; perception that first milk is harmful to the baby; insufficient milk; that milk will only come after 48 h Qualitative Weak quantitative and moderate qualitative
14 Patel et al. 2010 [26] India No education
Mothers aged 15–19 years
No education of husband
Home delivery
Caesarean section delivery
No antenatal check-ups
Bivariate analysis
No post natal check-ups
Lowest wealth quintile
No participation in decision making
No media – radio, newspaper, television
Geography: rural area; Central region
Quantitative cross-sectional survey: secondary analysis of National Family Health Survey 2005-06 Moderate
15 Subedi et al. 2012 [31] Chepang community, Nepal Illiterate
No antenatal check-ups
Home delivery
Quantitative cross- sectional survey Weak
16 Subba et al. 2007 [34] Pokhara, Nepal Nuclear family
Smaller family size
Quantitative cross-sectional survey Weak
17 Abdulraheem and Binns 2007 [42] Maldives (several islands) Caesarean section delivery Quantitative cross-sectional survey Weak
18 Athavale et al. 2004 [36] Urban Health Centre, Nagpur, India Caesarean section delivery
Customs; prelacteal feeding, discarding colostrum
Premature baby
Birth order; first birth
Quantitative cross-sectional survey Weak
19 Ekambaram et al. 2010 [38] Tertiary care hospital, South India Child was sick (34 %)
Delay in shifting from labour room (25 %)
Mother’s motivation/too tired: no consciousness (14 %)
Baby was sleeping (5 %)
Quantitative cross-sectional survey Weak
20 Moran et al. 2009 [49] Dhaka, Bangladesh Perceptions of no milk supply Quantitative cross-sectional survey. Qualitative Weak quantitative and moderate qualitative
21 Fikree et al. 2005 [46] Karachi, Pakistan Customs; traditional feeding practices and perceived health benefits Quantitative cross-sectional survey. Qualitative Moderate quantitative and moderate qualitative
22 Rahman et al. 2011 [30] Bangladesh No antenatal check-ups
Poorest wealth quintile
Delivery assistance by non-medically trained provider
No Education
Quantitative cross-sectional survey: analysis of Demographic and Health Survey 2007 Moderate
23 Ali et al. 2011 [32] Semi-urban Pakistan Lack of education Quantitative cross-sectional survey Weak
24 Digra et al. 2012 [45] Jammu, India Self-decision (22.2 %)
Advice of priest (35 %)
Advice of elderly lady in family (20.4 %)
Quantitative cross-sectional survey Weak
25 Premani et al. 2011 [40] Karachi, Pakistan Mothers too tired after delivery Qualitative Weak