Skip to main content

Table 2 Birth outcomes of urban and rural newborns

From: Breastfeeding practices on postnatal wards in urban and rural areas of the Deyang region, Sichuan province of China

  Total Urban Rural p - value
n = 201 n = 102 n = 99
Premature birth (<37 weeks), n (%) 4 (2.0) 4 (4.0) 0  
Term birth (37–42 weeks), n (%) 186 (93.5) 90 (89.1) 96 (98.0)  
Postmature birth (≥42 weeks), n (%) 9 (4.5) 7 (6.9) 2 (2.0)  
Gestational weight gain (GWG) b, kg 15.7 ± 5.3 16.7 ± 5.2 14.6 ± 5.2 0.007
If BMI < 18.5; GWG, kg 15.8 ± 5.5 18.4 ± 5.3 13.1 ± 4.3  
If BMI 18.5 ~ 24.9; GWG, kg 15.8 ± 4.9 16.1 ± 4.7 15.4 ± 5.0  
If BMI ≥ 25; GWG, kg 14.0 ± 9.9 16.3 ± 14.3 12.8 ± 8.4  
Type of delivery     
 Vaginal delivery, n (%) 66 (33.0) 35 (34.3) 31 (31.6) 0.764
 Caesarean section, n (%) 134 (67.0) 67 (65.7) 67 (68.4)  
Sex of newborns     
 Girls, n (%) 119 (59.2) 58 (56.9) 61 (61.6) 0.566
 Boys, n (%) 82 (40.8) 44 (43.1) 38 (38.4)  
Birth weight, kg 3.27 ± 0.40 3.32 ± 0.40 3.21 ± 0.39 0.053
Girls (n = 119, 58, 61), kg 3.25 ± 0.39 3.27 ± 0.40 3.23 ± 0.37 0.607
Boys (n = 82, 44, 38, kg 3.29 ± 0.41 3.39 ± 0.38 3.18 ± 0.42 0.021
Low birth weight < 2.5 kg, n (%) 6 (3.0) 3 (2.9) 3 (3.0)
Normal 2.5 ~ 4 kg, n (%) 188 (93.5) 95 (93.1) 93 (93.9)  
High birth weight ≥ 4 kg, n (%) 7 (3.5) 4 (3.9) 3 (3.0)  
Birth length a, cm 49.5 ± 1.5 49.8 ± 1.7 49.2 ± 1.4 0.005
Girls (n = 114; 56, 58), cm 49.3 ± 1.4 49.4 ± 1.4 49.1 ± 1.5 0.280
Boys (n = 78; 42, 36), cm 49.8 ± 1.7 50.3 ± 1.9 49.2 ± 1.2 0.005
Birth length < 50 cm a, n (%) 79 (41.1) 32 (32.7) 47 (50.0) 0.019
  1. Values are mean ± SD or number (%)
  2. p - value: independent-samples T test or Fisher’s exact test
  3. a n = 98 urban and n = 94 rural newborn (total n = 192); according to the Growth standard of Chinese children under 7 years [62], the median of length of male newborns was 50.4 cm while the female newborns was 49.7 cm. Normally Chinese doctors use 03 years growth chart [63] to evaluating the development of the newborns, in which the minimum scale of length is 0.5 cm. In order to simplify the process, 50 cm has become a common cut off point for judgment
  4. bRecommendation for weight gain according to pre-pregnancy BMI: Underweight (BMI < 18.5) 12.5–18 kg; Normal range (BMI 18.5–24.9) 11.5–16.0 kg; Overweight/Obese (BMI ≥ 25) 5–11.5 kg [64]