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Table 5 Adjusted percentage of children who were on exclusive breastfeeding at the age of four month by socioeconomic category of mother and household during NFHS-1 & NFHS-3

From: Changes in exclusive breastfeeding practices and its determinants in India, 1992–2006: analysis of national survey data

Characteristics Reference category NFHS-1 NFHS-3
States with level of post neonatal mortality
High Medium/low Any High Medium/low Any
Adjusted percentage of women practicing each type of breastfeeding
EBF NBF EBF NBF EBF NBF EBF NBF EBF NBF EBF NBF
Residence Urban 14* 4 24* 6 21* 5 15 6 23 12 19 6
Rural+ 24 2 29 4 27 3 32 6 39 9 35 5
Mother’s age at birth (years) <20 22 3 26* 4 24** 3 28 6 29 12 29 7
20 – 34+ 24 3 32 4 29 3 24 5 35 8 28 5
35 & above 22 3 23 6 23 3 41 8 3** 49 38 11
Mother’s education Illiterate+ 24 2 34 4 28 3 31 6 40 20 34 8
Literate, < middle school complete 19* 3 22* 4 21* 4 19 5 36 2 27 3
Middle school complete & above 14* 6 22* 6 19* 5 23 5 23 4 25 5
Mother’s occupation Non gainful occupation+ 22 3 26 4 24 3 23 5 31 6 26 4
Gainful occupation 26 3 33** 4 32* 3 32 7 38 21 35* 9
Standard of living index Low+ 25 2 35 4 30 3 29 4 48 11 36 4
Medium 22* 3 27** 4 25* 3 32 9 23* 12 29* 8
High 16* 4 15* 6 15* 5 18 4 29 10 24 5
Interval since last birth First birth/preceding birth interval 2 years or more+ 23 3 28 4 26 3 28 5 34 14 30 5
Preceding birth interval less than 2 years 19* 3 28 4 23* 4 26 5 39 2 31 4
Antenatal & natal care Yes 19* 3 28** 4 25* 4 21 5 32 7 26 5
No+ 26 3 26 3 25 3 42 5 35 22 42 7
Size of the baby Large/average+ 22 2 27 4 25 3 24 5 36 12 29 6
Small 24* 3 30* 6 27* 4 32 7 23* 6 29 6
All 54 24 3 29 5 26 26 5 33 10 29 6
  1. Note: 1. EBF: exclusive breastfeeding; NBF: not breastfeeding. 2. The percentages shown are adjusted by multiple classification analysis in conjunction with multinomial logistic regression. A plus (+) indicates a reference category and asterisk (*) or asterisks (**) indicate that the underlying multinomial logistic regression coefficient, associated with ratios of probability of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) to the probability of no breastfeeding (NBF) differences significantly from zero at the 5 % or 1 % level respectively