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Table 4 Adjusted percentage of children who were on exclusive breastfeeding at the age of one month by socioeconomic category of mother and household during NFHS-1 & NFHS-3

From: Changes in exclusive breastfeeding practices and its determinants in India, 1992–2006: analysis of national survey data

Characteristics Reference category NFHS-1 NFHS-3
States with level of post neonatal mortality
High Medium/low Any High Medium/low Any
Adjusted percentage of women practicing each type of breastfeeding
EBF NBF EBF NBF EBF NBF EBF NBF EBF NBF EBF NBF
Residence Urban 43* 2 54* 2 50* 2 57** 9 72 6 65 6
Rural+ 56 1 61 1 58 1 63 7 68 4 65 6
Mother’s age at birth (years) <20 54 1 58 2 56 1 56 11 69* 4 62 7
20 – 34+ 56 1 61 1 59 1 61 7 68 5 64 6
35 & above 50** 2 53* 3 51* 2 81** 0 96** 0 85** 0
Mother’s education Illiterate+ 56 1 63 1 58 1 59 7 72 4 64 6
Literate, < middle school complete 50 1 52* 2 51* 1 61 12 73** 5 67 8
Middle school complete & above 47 2 56* 2 52* 2 63 6 66 5 64 5
Mother’s occupation Non gainful occupation+ 54 1 57 2 55 1 59 8 64 5 61 7
Gainful occupation 59 1 65 2 64 1 65 7 83* 2 73 5
Standard of living index Low+ 56 1 63 2 60 1 61 8 81 0 68 5
Medium 54 1 58 2 56 1 65 6 67** 6 67 6
High 47 1 48 2 46* 2 58 8 64* 7 61 7
Interval since last birth First birth/preceding birth interval 2 years or more+ 55 1 59 2 56 1 67 2 74 4 70 3
Preceding birth interval less than 2 years 50* 2 58 2 54** 2 47** 18 54 4 51 13
Antenatal & natal care Yes 49* 1 59 2 55* 2 62 8 69 5 66 6
No+ 58 1 56 2 57 1 58 7 72 1 61 6
Size of the baby Large/average+ 53 1 58 1 55 1 62 5 70 4 66 4
Small 58* 2 60* 3 59* 2 58 16 67 7 63 12
All 54 1 58 2 56 2 61 7 69 5 65 6
  1. Note: 1. EBF exclusive breastfeeding, NBF not breastfeeding 2. The percentages shown are adjusted by multiple classification analysis in conjunction with multinomial logistic regression. A plus (+) indicates a reference category and asterisk (*) or asterisks (**) indicate that the underlying multinomial logistic regression coefficient, associated with ratios of probability of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) to the probability of no breastfeeding (NBF) differences significantly from zero at the 5 % or 1 % level respectively