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Table 1 Characteristics of children born during the four years and five years preceding the survey in statesb with high and medium/low levels of post neonatal mortality, NFHS-1 and NFHS-3 respectively

From: Changes in exclusive breastfeeding practices and its determinants in India, 1992–2006: analysis of national survey data

Characteristics States with level of PNMRa
NFHS-1 NFHS-3
High Medium/low All High Medium/low All
Sex of the child Male 51.3 50.8 51.1 51.8 52.6 52.1
Female 48.7 49.2 48.9 48.2 47.4 47.9
Size at birth  
Large/average 77.7 77.1 77.4 76.8 77.5 77.1
Small 20.3 22.2 21.1 23.2 22.5 22.9
Not available 2.1 0.7 1.4    
Mother’s age at birth  
Less than 20 years 20.8 26.5 23.3 19.4 22.0 20.5
20 - 34 years 72.2 70.5 71.4 75.1 75.7 75.3
35 years or more 7.0 3.0 5.2 5.5 2.2 4.2
Birth order  
1 24.4 31.8 27.7 25.7 37.4 30.4
2 -- 3 38.3 45.7 41.6 39.9 49.6 43.8
4 or more 37.2 22.6 30.7 34.4 13.1 25.8
Interval since last birth  
First birth/preceding birth interval 2 years or more 81.3 82.2 81.7 72.5 74.1 73.1
Preceding birth interval less than 2 years 18.7 17.8 18.3 27.5 25.9 26.9
Antenatal & natal care  
Yes 42.7 81.7 59.9 61.3 86.8 71.6
No 57.3 18.3 40.1 38.7 13.2 28.4
Residence  
Urban 16.2 31.1 22.7 18.2 36.0 25.4
Rural 83.9 68.9 77.3 81.8 64.0 74.6
Mother’s education  
Illiterate 76.9 53.8 66.7 61.9 31.6 49.7
Literate, < middle school complete 11.5 22.6 16.4 17.3 27.9 21.6
Middle school complete & above 11.6 23.6 16.9 20.8 40.5 28.7
Mother’s occupation  
Non gainful occupation 89.5 77.7 84.3 62.2 67.8 64.4
Working for someone else 8.4 19.6 13.3 37.8 32.2 35.6
Self employed 2.2 2.6 2.4    
Caste  
Scheduled caste (SC) 10.8 6.7 9.0 21.6 21.0 21.4
Scheduled tribe (ST) 14.7 12.0 13.5 10.1 8.1 9.3
Other than SC/ST 74.5 81.3 77.5 68.3 70.9 69.3
Standard of living index  
Low 41.0 38.5 39.9 35.0 22.8 30.1
Medium 46.8 45.9 46.4 32.2 30.4 31.5
High 9.7 14.1 11.7 22.7 37.5 28.7
Not available 2.4 1.5 2.0 10.1 9,3 9.7
  1. a PNMR Post Neonatal Mortality Rate
  2. bNorth eastern states are excluded