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Table 1 Rate (%) of initiation of breastfeeding within one hour of childbirth by demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, Nepal 2011 (N = 4079)

From: Factors associated with early initiation of breastfeeding among Nepalese mothers: further analysis of Nepal Demographic and Health Survey, 2011

Factor # Total N [%] Early initiation € n (%) P-value
Maternal factors    
Mother’s age at pregnancy (n = 2518)    0.006
15-19 245 (9.7) 211 (60.8)  
20-29 1791 (71.1) 1888 (68.5)  
30-34 282 (11.2) 454 (66.8)  
> = 35 200 (7.9) 308 (58.7)  
Maternal education    0.001
No education 1765 (43.3) 1130 (57.9)  
Primary 817 (20.0) 600 (70.0)  
Secondary 1225 (30.0) 927 (74.6)  
Higher 272 (6.7) 204 (73.6)  
Mother’s occupation    0.001
Not working 965 (23.7) 618 (59.1)  
Agriculture 2502 (61.3) 1775 (68.0)  
Working (paid) 612 (15.0) 468 (74.2)  
ANC visit (Times)    0.001
No ANC visit 611 (15.0) 382 (59.4)  
1-3 1317 (32.3) 885 (61.8)  
4 or more 2151 (52.7) 1594 (71.7)  
Place of delivery    0.002
Home 2464 (60.4) 1670 (63.9)  
Health facility 1615 (39.6) 1191 (70.5)  
Sociodemographic factors    
Ethnicity    0.048
Relatively advantaged 1955 (47.9) 1359 (66.3)  
Relatively disadvantaged (Janjati) 1410 (34.6) 1022 (69.8)  
Relatively disadvantaged (Dalit) 714 (17.5) 480 (58.8)  
Religion    0.188
Hindu 3480 (85.3) 2464 (67.3)  
Others 599 (14.7) 397 (61.9)  
Wealth quintile    0.073
Poor (Lower 40%) 1992 (48.8) 1375 (65.3)  
Middle (Middle 40%) 1416 (34.7) 513 (62.3)  
Rich (Upper 20%) 671 (16.5) 973 (70.4)  
Child related factors    
Sex of child    0.098
Male 2192 (53.7) 1563 (68.0)  
Female 1887 (46.3) 1298 (64.9)  
Birth order    <0.001
First 1248 (30.6) 854 (64.0)  
Second or third 1847 (45.3) 1367 (70.5)  
Fourth or more 984 (4.1) 640 (61.5)  
Size of baby (n = 3945)    0.035
Average 784 (19.2) 1808 (65.4)  
Small 2576 (63.2) 477 (64.2)  
Large 715 (17.5) 574 (71.7)  
Contextual factors    
Place of residence    0.816
Urban 897 (22.0) 638 (67.0)  
Rural 3182 (78.0) 2223 (66.3)  
Development region    <0.001
Eastern 958 (23.5) 679 (69.7)  
Central 854 (20.9) 504 (54.4)  
Western 643 (15.8) 456 (70.5)  
Mid -Western 896 (22.0) 642 (71.4)  
Far-Western 728 (17.8) 580 (79.9)  
Ecological region    0.017
Mountain 742 (18.2) 529 (70.5)  
Hill 1656 (40.6) 1185 (70.4)  
Terai/Plain 1681 (41.2) 1147 ( 62.7)  
  1. € The percentages presented for the early initiation of breastfeeding are the weighted and cluster sampling adjusted percentage which differs from the crude percentage. The number of missing values may vary for each variable. # the number and percent reported are unweighted for the independent variables and their sub class to facilitate the reading as weighted count (frequency) will be in decimal points generated by the software.