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Table 2 Relevant terms and definitions

From: Effects of mother-infant skin-to-skin contact on severe latch-on problems in older infants: a randomized trial

Terms Definitions
Exclusive breastfeeding The infant receives nothing but milk from the breast, vitamin D and essential medication
Hands-on latch intervention Hospital staff, another person or relative uses their own hands to try to attach the infant to the breast with a grip around the infant’s neck and a grip around the mother’s breast/nipple sometimes using more or less force
Latch-on/latching The infant is sustained attached to the breast with a wide open mouth over the nipple and the areola or parts of the areola and tongue in close contact with the lower part of the areola
Latching regularly The mother perceives that the infant wants to breastfeed; the infant responds by latching-on the breast when it is offered
Nipple shield Small plastic or rubber device shaped like the nipple that is placed over the nipple before latching
No separation Mother and infant have skin-to-skin contact directly after birth and stay together during the first hour
Partial breastfeeding Breastfeeding occurs regularly but the infant is also given supplementation or has started to eat solid food
Sucking The infant is sucking the breast with rhythmic movements with pauses in between