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Table 4 Odds ratio for hypertension, obesity and diabetes in nulliparous and parous women (n = 26,388)

From: Lactation and cardiovascular risk factors in mothers in a population-based study: the HUNT-study

  Women ≤ 50 years of age (n = 14,677) Women > 50 years of age (n = 11,711)
    Crude OR Adjusted ORa 95 % CI    Crude OR Adjusted ORa 95 % CI
Hypertension b No. No. hypertension     No. No. hypertension    
Nulliparous women 3,011 367 1.0 (Ref.) 1.0 (Ref.)   2,009 1,514 1.0 (Ref.) 1.0 (Ref.)  
Parous women 11,666 2,006 1.49 0.75 0.65, 0.89 9,702 6,331 0.61 0.88 0.77, 1.00
P-value     <0.001      0.05  
Months of lifetime lactation
Never 360 98 2.08 1.88 1.41, 2.51 345 110 0.85 1.26 0.96, 1.65
1–6 2,587 489 1.29 1.24 1.03, 1.49 1,834 719 0.61 0.88 0.75, 1.02
7–12 3,038 528 1.17 1.16 0.98, 1.37 2,363 864 0.69 0.93 0.80, 1.07
13–23 3,513 560 1.05 1.03 0.88, 1.21 2,753 996 0.70 0.89 0.78, 1.01
≥ 24 2,168 331 1.0 (Ref.) 1.0 (Ref.)   2,407 682 1.0 (Ref.) 1.0 (Ref.)  
P- trendc     <0.001      0.944  
P- trendd     0.009      0.218  
Obesity e No. No. obesity     No. No. obesity    
Nulliparous women 3,011 357 1.0 (Ref.) 1.0 (Ref.)   2,009 497 1.0 (Ref.) 1.0 (Ref.)  
Parous women 11,666 1,501 1.10 0.82 0.70, 0.96 9,702 2 490 1.05 1.26 1.11, 1.43
P-value     0.013      <0.001  
Months of lifetime lactation
Never 360 100 3.29 3.37 2.51, 4.51 345 97 0.87 1.17 0.89, 1.53
1–6 2,587 398 1.56 1.68 1.36, 2.06 1,834 429 0.68 0.92 0.79, 1.09
7–12 3,038 420 1.37 1.46 1.21, 1.77 2,363 552 0.68 0.88 0.76, 1.01
13–23 3,513 356 0.96 1.02 0.85, 1.23 2,753 668 0.72 0.89 0.78, 1.01
≥ 24 2,168 227 1.0 (Ref.) 1.0 (Ref.)   2,407 744 1.0 (Ref.) 1.0 (Ref.)  
P- trendc     <0.001      0.861  
P- trendd     <0.001      0.457  
Diabetes f No. No. diabetes     No. No. diabetes    
Nulliparous women 3 011 20 1.0 (Ref.) 1.0 (Ref.)   2 009 129 1.0 (Ref.) 1.0 (Ref.)  
Parous women 11 666 77 0.99 0.59 0.32, 1.11 9 702 466 0.74 1.01 0.80, 1.26
P-value     0.102      0.957  
Months of lifetime lactation  
Never 360 10 5.60 5.87 2.25, 15.3 345 21 0.71 1.29 0.78, 2.14
1–6 2 587 18 1.37 1.49 0.63, 3.53 1 834 64 0.57 0.71 0.50, 1.01
7–12 3 038 19 1.23 1.29 0.57, 2.89 2 363 91 0.51 0.74 0.55, 1.00
13–23 3 513 19 1.07 1.06 0.48, 2.33 2 753 131 0.92 0.89 0.69, 1.16
≥ 24 2 168 11 1.0 (Ref.) 1.0 (Ref.)   2 407 159 1.0 (Ref.) 1.0 (Ref.)  
P- trendc     0.004      0.202  
P- trendd     0.292      0.014  
  1. Abbreviations: No, number; OR, odds ratio; CI, confidence interval, Ref., reference category.
  2. a Adjusted for maternal age, smoking status, physical activity, education and marital status. For parous women: maternal age, smoking status, physical activity, education, marital status and parity.
  3. bHypertension defined as ≥ 140/90 mmHg or current antihypertensive treatment.
  4. cP-trend across all five categories of lifetime lactation duration, including the category “never”.
  5. dP-trend across four categories of lifetime lactation duration, excluding the category “never”.
  6. eObesity defined as BMI ≥ 30 kg/m.
  7. fDiabetes defined as blood glucose ≥ 11.1 mmol/L or self reported diabetes in the questionnaire.