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Table 3 Triglycerides, total-, HDL- and LDL-cholesterol and blood glucose (log-transformed) in nulliparous and parous women (n = 26,388)

From: Lactation and cardiovascular risk factors in mothers in a population-based study: the HUNT-study

  Women ≤ 50 years of age (n = 14,677) Women > 50 years of age (n = 11,711)
  No. Crude geometric mean Adjusted geometric meana 95 % CI No. Crude geometric mean Adjusted geometric meana 95 % CI
Triglycerides (mmol/L)
Nulliparous women 3,011 1.09 1.21 1.17, 1.26 2,009 1.66 1.58 1.54, 1.62
Parous women 11,666 1.14 1.16 1.12, 1.20 9,702 1.63 1.63 1.59, 1.66
P- valueb    <0.001     0.02  
Months of lifetime lactation
Never 360 1.34 1.30 1.22, 1.38 345 1.64 1.70 1.61, 1.80
1–6 2,587 1.22 1.22 1.17, 1.27 1,834 1.55 1.61 1.55, 1.67
7–12 3,038 1.15 1.17 1.13, 1.22 2,363 1.59 1.63 1.57, 1.68
13–23 3,513 1.11 1.14 1.10, 1.19 2,753 1.64 1.65 1.59, 1.70
≥ 24 2,168 1.08 1.11 1.07, 1.16 2,407 1.70 1.63 1.57, 1.69
P- trendc    <0.001     0.890  
P- trendd    <0.001     0.462  
Cholesterol (mmol/L)
Nulliparous women 3,011 4.95 5.35 5.27, 5.42 2 009 6.73 6.56 6.50, 6.63
Parous women 11,666 5.27 5.19 5.13, 5.25 9 702 6.58 6.50 6.45, 6.55
P- valueb    <0.001     0.06  
Months of lifetime lactation
Never 360 5.56 5.47 5.35, 5.59 345 6.48 6.47 6.33, 6.61
1–6 2,587 5.38 5.37 5.29, 5.45 1,834 6.52 6.51 6.42, 6.59
7–12 3,038 5.28 5.31 5.23, 5.39 2,363 6.54 6.52 6.43, 6.60
13–23 3,513 5.20 5.23 5.16, 5.31 2,753 6.61 6.58 6.49, 6.66
≥ 24 2,168 5.17 5.20 5.12, 5.28 2,407 6.62 6.51 6.42, 6.60
P- trendc    <0.001     0.362  
P- trendd    <0.001     0.552  
HDL-cholesterol (mmol/L)
Nulliparous women 3,011 1.47 1.48 1.46, 1.51 2 009 1.47 1.50 1.48, 1.52
Parous women 11,666 1.44 1.42 1.39, 1.44 9 702 1.46 1.45 1.43, 1.46
P- valueb    <0.001     <0.001  
Months of lifetime lactation
Never 360 1.39 1.38 1.34. 1.43 345 1.46 1.44 1.39. 1.48
1–6 2,587 1.41 1.41 1.39. 1.44 1,834 1.48 1.45 1.42. 1.48
7–12 3,038 1.44 1.43 1.40. 1.46 2,363 1.47 1.45 1.42. 1.48
13–23 3,513 1.45 1.44 1.41. 1.47 2,753 1.46 1.45 1.42. 1.48
≥ 24 2,168 1.45 1.43 1.40. 1.47 2,407 1.41 1.43 1.40. 1.46
P- trendc    0.008     0.362  
P- trendd    0.06     0.265  
LDL-cholesterol e (mmol/L)
Nulliparous women 2,999 3.15 3.49 3.42, 3.56 1 943 4.76 4.58 4.52, 4.65
Parous women 11,576 3.48 3.43 3.37, 3.49 9 471 4.64 4.57 4.52, 4.62
P- valueb    0.006     0.661  
Months of lifetime lactation
Never 353 3.77 3.70 3.58, 3.83 337 4.55 4.55 4.42, 4.69
1–6 2,564 3.60 3.60 3.52, 3.68 1,798 4.57 4.57 4.49, 4.66
7–12 3,021 3.49 3.53 3.46, 3.61 2,316 4.58 4.58 4.50, 4.67
13–23 3,482 3.41 3.45 3.38, 3.53 2,677 4.64 4.64 4.55, 4.72
≥ 24 2,156 3.40 3.44 3.36, 3.52 2,343 4.58 4.58 4.49, 4.67
P- trendc    <0.001     0.396  
P- trendd    <0.001     0.509  
Glucose (mmol/L)         
Nulliparous women 3,011 4.93 5.10 5.04, 5.16 2,009 5.61 5.52 5.46, 5.59
Parous women 11,666 5.02 4.99 4.94, 5.04 9,702 5.53 5.57 5.52, 5.62
P- valueb    <0.001     0.183  
Months of lifetime lactation
Never 360 5.15 5.10 5.00, 5.20 345 5.51 5.62 5.48, 5.76
1–6 2,587 5.04 5.02 4.96, 5.09 1,834 5.43 5.53 5.44, 5.62
7–12 3,038 5.01 5.00 4.94,5.06 2,363 5.51 5.58 5.49, 5.66
13–23 3,513 5.02 5.00 4.94, 5.07 2,753 5.54 5.59 5.50, 5.67
≥ 24 2,168 5.01 4.99 4.92, 5.06 2,407 5.60 5.57 5.48, 5.66
P- trendc    0.06     0.587  
P- trendd    0.232     0.268  
  1. Abbreviations: No. number; CI, confidence interval; HDL, high density lipoprotein; LDL, low density lipoprotein.
  2. a For nulliparous women: Adjusted for maternal age, smoking status, physical activity, education, marital status and time since last meal. For parous women: Adjusted for maternal age, smoking status, physical activity, education, marital status, time since last meal and parity.
  3. bP-value between nulliparous vs parous. Adjusted for maternal age, smoking status, physical activity, education, marital status and time since last meal.
  4. cP-trend across all five categories of lifetime lactation duration, including the category “never”.
  5. dP-trend across four categories of lifetime lactation duration, excluding the category “never”.
  6. eLDL was calculated only if serum triglycerides were lower than 4.5 mmol/L.