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Table 2 Comparison between those who expressed antenatally and those who did not express against key indicators

From: Antenatal breast expression in women with diabetes: outcomes from a retrospective cohort study

  Expressed antenatally Did not express antenatally p value
N=16 N= 69  
  Mean (SD) Mean (SD)  
Induction of labour 7/15 (47) 37/67 (55) 0.57
Vaginal birth 4/16 (25) 28/70 (40) 0.23
Gestational age at birth (wks) 37.1 (2.6) 38.2 (2.2) 0.06
Birth weight (g) 3157 (770) 3279 (590) 0.95
Apgar (5 minutes) 8.4 (1.1) 8.3 (1.6) 0.88
Breastfeeding duration (wks) 18.5 (14.4) 19.9 (21.4) 0.19
  n/N (%)* n/N (%)  
SCBU admission 5/15 (33) 8/66 (12) 0.06
Breastfed at birth** 15/15 (100) 60/70 (86) 0.19
Breast problems*** 5/16 (31) 39/70 (56) 0.10
  1. *: Where the numbers do not add up is because of the missing data (some questions were not answered by the participants).
  2. **: The first feed was breast milk.
  3. ***Breast problems included complications such as cracked nipples and mastitis.