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Table 3 Logistic regression of determinants of exclusive breastfeeding

From: Factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding among infants under six months of age in peninsular malaysia

Variables Exclusive breastfeeding
(n = 294)
n (%)
Non-exclusive breastfeeding
(n = 388)
n (%)
Age-adjusted Multivariate
    OR 95% CI Adj OR 95% CI
Area of residence       
Urban 167 (41.0) 240 (59.0) 1.00 - 1.00 -
Rural 127 (46.2) 148 (53.8) 1.23 1.08, 1.68 1.16 1.03, 1.89
Maternal ethnicity       
Malay 218 (52.5) 197 (47.5) 1.00 - 1.00 -
Chinese 20 (15.6) 108 (84.4) 0.17 0.10, 0.28 0.20 0.11, 0.35
Indian 39 (35.8) 70 (64.2) 0.50 0.33, 0.78 0.05 0.29, 0.75
Other 17 (56.7) 13 (43.3) 1.18 0.56, 2.50 1.00 0.45, 2.26
Maternal education level       
Diploma/Degree 37 (33.9) 72 (66.1) 1.00 - n/s
Secondary school 237 (44.5) 296 (55.5) 1.56 1.01, 2.40   
Primary school 20 (50.0) 20 (50.0) 1.95 1.17, 4.06   
Maternal occupation       
Working 73 (25.3) 216 (74.7) 1.00 - 1.00 -
Not working 221 (56.2) 172 (43.8) 3.80 2.73, 5.30 3.66 2.45, 5.46
Monthly household income (RM)       
>3,500 5 (9.6) 47 (90.4) 1.00 - n/s
1,500 - 3,500 188 (41.7) 263 (58.3) 6.68 2.61, 17.08   
<1,500 101 (56.4) 78 (43.6) 12.10 4.61, 31.80   
Maternal smoking status       
Yes 1 (5.3) 18 (94.7) 1.00 - 1.00 -
No 293 (44.2) 370 (55.8) 14.24 1.89, 107.16 5.18 1.59, 45.05
Parity       
Primiparous 81 (32.8) 166 (67.2) 1.00 - 1.00 -
Multiparous 213 (49.0) 222 (51.0) 1.97 1.42, 2.72 1.68 1.17, 2.42
Infant gestational age (weeks)       
<37 20 (29.4) 48 (70.6) 1.00 - 1.00 -
≥37 274 (44.6) 340 (55.4) 1.93 1.12, 3.34 1.74 1.05, 3.01
Husbands support on breastfeeding       
No 3 (10.0) 27 (90.0) 1.00 - 1.00 -
Yes 291 (44.6) 361 (55.4) 7.22 2.17, 23.99 4.20 1.12, 15.75
No children < 12 staying in house       
1 73 (34.4) 139 (65.6) 1.00 - n/s
2 - 4 193 (46.3) 224 (53.7) 1.64 1.16, 2.31   
>4 28 (52.8) 25 (47.2) 2.13 1.16, 3.92   
Occupancy rate (person per room)       
<1.5 46 (32.6) 95 (67.4) 1.00 - n/s
1.5 - 4.0 238 (45.1) 290 (54.9) 1.69 1.15, 2.51   
>4.0 10 (76.9) 3 (23.1) 6.86 1.80, 26.08   
Bed-sharing practice       
No 45 (24.9) 136 (75.1) 1.00 - 1.00 -
Yes 249 (49.7) 252 (50.3) 2.99 2.04, 4.37 1.50 1.12, 2.37
  1. OR: odds ratio; CI: confidence interval; n/s: not significant
  2. Adj OR: adjusted odds ratio; adjusted for area of residence, maternal ethnicity, maternal occupation, maternal smoking status, parity, infant gestational age, husbands support on breastfeeding, bed-sharing practice and infant age.