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Table 4 Comparison of mean (SD) for items on the questionnaire: women's health, psychological well-being and perceptions of quality of care

From: A descriptive study of Swedish women with symptoms of breast inflammation during lactation and their perceptions of the quality of care given at a breastfeeding clinic

  All responders Favourable outcome
(≤ 5 contact days)
Less favourable outcome
(≥ 6 contact days)
Z1 p
Item n = 176 n = 126 n = 50   
How I rate my physical health 2 4.5 (± 0.6) 4.5 (± 0.6) 4.4 (± 0.7) 0.45 0.67
How I rate my psychological well-being 2 n = 176 n = 126 n = 50   
  4.4 (± 0.7) 4.5 (± 0.7) 4.4 (± 0.8) 0.64 0.53
I was given best possible advice and instructions 3 n = 175 n = 125 n = 50   
  2.8 (± 0.4) 2.9 (± 0.3) 2.7 (± 0.4) 2.00 0.05
I had confidence in the midwife 3 n = 175 n = 126 n = 49   
  2.8 (± 0.4) 2.9 (± 0.4) 2.7 (± 0.5) 2.21 0.03
I had confidence in the doctor 3 n = 38 n = 15 n = 23   
  2.6 (± 0.6) 2.5 (± 0.6) 2.6 (± 0.7) 0.50 0.62
I was given good information about:      
How often I should breastfeed n = 173 n = 124 n = 49   
Perceived Reality 4 3.1 (± 1.3) 3.0 (± 1.3) 3.3 (± 1.1) 1.67 0.10
Subjective Importance 4 2.7 (± 1.3) 2.6 (± 1.3) 3.0 (± 1.1) 2.24 0.03
Expressing milk by hand n = 171 n = 123 n = 48   
Perceived Reality 4 2.9 (± 1.4) 2.9 (± 1.4) 3.0 (± 1.2) 0.40 0.70
Subjective Importance 4 2.2 (± 1.3) 2.2 (± 1.3) 2.3 (± 1.3) 0.63 0.53
Using a breast pump n = 170 n = 123 n = 47   
Perceived Reality 4 3.4 (± 1.0) 3.4 (± 1.1) 3.6 (± 0.7) 0.60 0.60
Subjective Importance 4 3.0 (± 1.2) 2.9 (± 1.3) 3.3 (± 0.7) 1.45 0.15
Other ways of decreasing breast tension n = 171 n = 123 n = 48   
Perceived Reality 4 2.4 (± 1.6) 2.4 (± 1.6) 2.4 (± 1.5) 0.38 0.70
Subjective Importance 4 2.4 (± 1.5) 2.4 (± 1.5) 2.5 (± 1.5) 0.54 0.60
How breast inflammation occurs n = 173 n = 125 n = 48   
Perceived Reality 4 3.4 (± 0.9) 3.4 (± 0.9) 3.4 (± 0.9) 0.09 0.93
Subjective Importance 5 3.3 (± 0.9) 3.2 (± 0.9) 3.4 (± 0.9) 1.13 0.26
How to avoid overfull breasts n = 173 n = 125 n = 48   
Perceived Reality 5 2.6 (± 1.4) 2.7 (± 1.4) 2.4 (± 1.4) 1.34 0.20
Subjective Importance 4 2.7 (± 1.4) 2.7 (± 1.4) 2.7 (± 1.5) 0.08 0.93
I felt that the midwife:      
Seemed to understand my situation n = 172 n = 124 n = 48   
Perceived Reality 4 3.6 (± 0.7) 3.7 (± 0.6) 3.5 (± 0.8) 1.60 0.11
Subjective Importance 4 3.6 (± 0.6) 3.6 (± 0.7) 3.7 (± 0.6) 1.36 0.18
Showed that she cared about me n = 171 n = 123 n = 48   
Perceived Reality 4 3.8 (± 0.5) 3.8 (± 0.5) 3.7 (± 0.6) 0.10 0.32
Subjective Importance 4 3.8 (± 0.5) 3.7 (± 0.5) 3.8 (± 0.5) 0.52 0.60
Supported me in my role as a new mother n = 171 n = 123 n = 48   
Perceived Reality 4 3.3 (± 1.2) 3.3 (± 1.2) 3.3 (± 1.2) 0.07 0.95
Subjective Importance 4 3.3 (± 1.2) 3.2 (± 1.2) 3.4 (± 1.1) 1.0 0.32
I was given enough opportunity to talk to the midwife about:      
My health in general n = 170 n = 124 n = 46   
Perceived Reality 4 3.3 (± 1.1) 3.3 (± 1.2) 3.4 (± 1.0) 0.05 1.0
Subjective Importance 4 3.1 (± 1.2) 3.1 (± 1.2) 3.3 (± 1.0) 1.06 0.30
My breast inflammation n = 167 n = 121 n = 46   
Perceived Reality 4 3.8 (± 0.6) 3.8 (± 0.6) 3.7 (± 0.6) 0.81 0.42
Subjective Importance 4 3.6 (± 0.7) 3.6 (± 0.8) 3.7 (± 0.5) 0.13 0.90
  1. 1 = Mann Whitney U-test; 2 = range 1–5; 3 = range 1–3; 4 = range 1–4