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Table 2 Symptoms and history of the illness for women with a favourable outcome (≤ 5 contact days) and a less favourable outcome (≥ 6 contact days) at their first visit to the midwife

From: A descriptive study of Swedish women with symptoms of breast inflammation during lactation and their perceptions of the quality of care given at a breastfeeding clinic

  Women with a favourable outcome (≤ 5 contact days) n= 149 Women with a less favourable outcome (≥ 6 contact days) n= 61 Total missing values Test
(significance level ≤ 0.05)
  n (%) n (%)   
Fever     
No fever (≤ 37.5°C) 34 (22.8) 9 (14.8)   Any fever vs no fever OR 0.50 (95%CI 0.17, 1.10)
NS*
Moderate fever (37.6 – 38°C) 19 (12.8) 12 (20.0)   
Severe fever (38.1 – 40.7°C) 51 (34) 29 (47.5) 56  
Nipple damage     
No damage 99 (66.4) 28 (45.9) 6 Any damage vs no damage OR 2.70 (95%CI 1.40, 5.14)
p = < 0.01
Damage at end of nipple 30 (20.1) 22 (36.1)   
Fissure across nipple 2 (1.3) 7 (11.5)   
Fissure around base of nipple 12 (8.1) 4 (6.6)   
Unilateral involvement 131 (88.0) 48 (79.1)   
Bilateral involvement 16 (10.7) 13 (21.3) 2 Uni vs bilateral OR 2.22 (95%CI 0.90, 5.32)
NS
  Mean (± SD) Mean (± SD)   
Number of days illness before contacting clinic 2.6 (2.1) 3.1 (2.8)   Mann Whitney
z = -1.77
NS
Breast pain on VAS at first contact (range 0 – 10) 5.5 (2.4) 6.0 (2.0)   ANOVA
F = 2.52
NS
Increased breast tension at first contact (range 0 – 5) 3.1 (1.5) 3.9 (1.0)   ANOVA
F = 16.70
p = < 0.01
Breast erythema at first contact (range 0 – 4) 1.7 (1.1) 2.2 (1.2)   ANOVA
F = 9.30
p = < 0.01
  1. *NS = not significant