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Table 3 Breast pain, nipple cracks or sores, and mastitis during the first 3 months after the baby's birth, and breast pumping before and after weaning: Initial interviews every 3 weeks until 12 weeks post-partum, and re-interview 1–3.5 years post-partum

From: Recall of age of weaning and other breastfeeding variables

  Reported During Initial Interviews (3, 6, 9, or 12 weeks post-partum)     
  Yes No     
  Re-interview Re-interview     
Symptom/Illness Yes No Yes No Sensitivitya Specificityb Cohen's Kappa McNemar's Test p-value
Any breast pain c 67 24 27 18 74% 40% 0.14 0.780
Any cracks or sores c 45 35 7 47 56% 87% 0.40** < 0.001
Mastitis d 53 13 2 72 80% 97% 0.78** 0.007
Mastitis Dx in person d,e 16 4 7 26 80% 79% 0.57** 0.549
Pumped before weaning f 42 20 9 36 68% 80% 0.46** 0.061
Pumped after weaning g 6 6 13 36 50% 74% 0.19 0.167
  1. a Percentage of women reporting this symptom at re-interview, out of those originally reporting it.
  2. b Percentage of women not reporting this symptom at re-interview, out of those not originally reporting it.
  3. * p < 0.05 ** p < 0.01
  4. c Women with the "bad skip" or otherwise incomplete prospective data who had not reported the condition in the existing interviews were excluded.
  5. d All women with the "bad skip" (n = 44) are excluded. None of those women had reported mastitis prior to the bad skip.
  6. e Includes only women who answered the question on mastitis at both initial interview and re-interview.
  7. f Women who stopped breastfeeding in the first week are excluded.
  8. g Women who stopped breastfeeding in the week of the interview were excluded because data after weaning were not available.