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Table 1 Method of analgesia by demographic and obstetric factors

From: Intrapartum epidural analgesia and breastfeeding: a prospective cohort study

  Non-pharmacological
n (%)
Gas
n (%)
Pethidine
n (%)
Epidural
n (%)
General anaesthetic
n (%)
p-value from χ2test
  n = 312 n = 190 n = 292 n = 416 n = 50  
Maternal age       0.002
16–19 5 (2) 4 (2) 9 (3) 8 (2) 2 (4)  
20–24 28 (9) 17 (9) 54 (18) 45 (11) 3 (6)  
25–29 99 (32) 63 (33) 99 (34) 153 (37) 11 (22)  
30+ 179 (58) 106 (56) 130 (45) 210 (50) 34 (68)  
Maternal education       0.32
Up to year 11 61 (20) 43 (23) 63 (22) 74 (18) 10 (20)  
Year 12 70 (23) 43 (23) 80 (27) 98 (24) 5 (10)  
Trade/certificate/diploma 61 (20) 31 (16) 57 (20) 87 (21) 11 (22)  
Degree 118 (38) 73 (38) 92 (32) 155 (37) 24 (48)  
Type of birth       <0.0001
Vaginal 306 (98) 183 (96) 262 (90) 116 (28) 0  
Instrumental 6 (2) 7 (4) 30 (10) 128 (31) 0  
CS with labour 0 0 0 64 (15) 19 (38)  
CS no labour 0 0 0 108 (26) 31 (62)  
Onset of labour       <0.0001
Spontaneous 258 (83) 148 (78) 201 (69) 162 (39) 11 (22)  
Induced 53 (17) 41 (22) 89 (31) 144 (35) 8 (16)  
No labour 0 0 0 108 (26) 31 (62)  
Parity       <0.0001
No previous births 84 (27) 62 (33) 157 (54) 225 (54) 19 (38)  
≥1 previous births 227 (73) 128 (67) 134 (46) 191 (46) 31 (62)  
Length of labour 1       <0.0001
<2 hours 52 (17) 24 (13) 12 (4) 6 (2) 1 (5)  
2–12 hours 224 (72) 144 (76) 200 (68) 142 (47) 11 (58)  
12–24 hours 32 (10) 16 (8) 67 (23) 105 (34) 4 (21)  
>24 hours 3 (1) 5 (3) 13 (5) 51 (17) 3 (16)  
  1. 1among women who laboured