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Table 1 Serum leptin, cortisol, insulin, thyroxine, estradiol and prolactin concentrations during days 1–180 postpartum

From: Leptin concentration in breast milk and its relationship to duration of lactation and hormonal status

Lactation period N Leptin Cortisol Insulin Thyroxine Estradiol Prolactin
   (ng/ml) (μg/dl) (μIU/ml) (μg/dl) (pg/ml) (ng/ml)
1–3 postpartum days 37 16.6 ± 1.7 38.9 ± 2.9 13.0 ± 2.3 11.9 ± 0.5 148 ± 20 264 ± 19
4–14 postpartum days 27 14.2 ± 1.9 19.2 ± 1.4* 11.6 ± 1.5 10.8 ± 0.3 47 ± 5* 155 ± 11*
15–30 postpartum days 16 13.8 ± 1.6 21.7 ± 2.2* 11.1 ± 1.0 7.9 ± 0.4* 55 ± 4* 135 ± 17*
31–90 post partum days 37 13.2 ± 1.6 17.1 ± 1.9* 15.2 ± 2.2 7.3 ± 0.3* 51 ± 8* 85 ± 9*
91–180 postpartum days 43 10.2 ± 1.4* 18.3 ± 1.1* 11.2 ± 1.3 7.3 ± 0.2* 49 ± 7* 44 ± 5*
  1. Blood samples collected from 160 healthy lactating women at 1–180 days, grouped into five intervals: 1–3 days (colostrum), 4–14 days (transitional milk), 15–30 days (early mature milk), 31–90 days (mature milk) and 91–180 days (late mature milk).
  2. Statistical analyses of the log values of serum leptin, cortisol, insulin, thyroxine, estradiol and prolactin concentrations were performed with one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's multiple comparison method.
  3. *p < 0.05-0.001 when compared with the observed values for days 1–3.