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Table 4 Regression analysis – associations with feeding any breast milk at six months

From: Factors associated with breastfeeding at six months postpartum in a group of Australian women

Factor N * % ** Odds Ratio (95% Confidence Interval) Adj*** Odds Ratio (95% Confidence Interval)
Intention to breastfeed 6 months or more (asked at recruitment and 2–4 days after birth)
   "Yes" at recruitment AND in hospital interview (ref) 107 68.6 1   1  
   "No" at recruitment but "Yes" at in hospital interview 205 57.8 0.63 (0.42, 0.93) 0.69 (0.44, 1.07)
   "Yes" at recruitment but "No" at in hospital interview 27 57.5 0.62 (0.32, 1.21) 0.84 (0.39, 1.81)
   Never intended to breastfeed 6 months or more 79 38.4 0.28 (0.18, 0.44) 0.41 (0.25, 0.67)
Desire to breastfeed
   Other than very strong (ref) 54 32.0 1   1  
   Very strong 364 61.2 3.30 (2.34, 4.64) 2.18 (1.45, 3.29)
Confidence in breastfeeding ability
   Other than confident (ref) 202 50.0 1   n/s  
   Feels confident 216 60.0 1.53 (1.15, 2.02) n/s  
Partner's view of breastfeeding
   Other than prefer breastfeed (ref) 132 50.8 1   n/s  
   Prefers me to breastfeed 283 56.8 1.52 (1.15, 2.02) n/s  
Family's view of breastfeeding
   Other than prefer breastfeed (ref) 180 48.9 1   n/s  
   Prefer me to breastfeed 238 60.1 1.95 (1.49, 2.55) n/s  
Was breastfed as a baby
   Not breastfed as baby (ref) 83 43.7 1   1  
   Breastfed as a baby 318 59.1 1.9 (1.33, 2.60) 1.73 (1.19, 2.54)
   Breastfeeding history unknown 17 47.2 1.15 (0.56, 2.36) 1.72 (0.74, 4.03)
Smoked pre-pregnancy
   No (ref) 291 59.8 1   1  
   1–19/day 101 48.1 0.62 (0.45, 0.86) 1.04 (0.70, 1.52)
   20 or more/day 24 38.1 0.41 (0.24, 0.71) 0.47 (0.26, 0.86)
   Did not answer question 2 50.0 0.67 (0.94, 4.82) 1.59 (0.19, 13.40)
Maternal body mass index
   Normal weight (20–25) (ref) 272 57.0 1   1  
   Underweight (< 20) 63 60.0 1.16 (0.76, 1.76) 1.15 (0.70, 1.88)
   Overweight (> 25 and < 30) 54 51.9 0.71 (0.47, 1.06) 0.70 (0.43, 1.12)
   Obese (>= 30) 29 37.2 0.39 (0.25, 0.62) 0.49 (0.28, 0.85)
Baby admitted to special care
   No (ref) 379 55.5 1   n/s  
   Yes 39 48.2 0.74 (0.47, 1.18) n/s  
Gestation
   < 37 weeks (ref) 31 50.0 1   n/s  
   37 weeks and over 387 55.1 1.12 (0.70, 1.79) n/s  
Breastfed within 1 hour of birth
   Yes (ref) 246 57.8 1   n/s  
   No 172 50.9 0.71 (0.54, 0.93) n/s  
Received formula in hospital
   No (ref) 328 60.0 1   1  
   Yes 90 41.5 0.39 (0.29, 0.53) 0.43 (0.30, 0.62)
Education       
   Completed tertiary (ref) 269 63.9 1   n/s  
   Completed secondary (but not tertiary) 96 48.5 0.53 (0.38, 0.75) n/s  
   Did not complete secondary 53 36.6 0.33 (0.22, 0.48) n/s  
Family income (AUD)       
   <$20,000 (ref) 43 42.2 1   n/s  
   $20–50,000 149 52.0 1.43 (0.95, 2.12) n/s  
   >$50,000 206 62.2 2.06 (1.38, 3.09) n/s  
   Income missing 20 45.5 1.09 (0.59, 2.02) n/s  
Region of birth
   Australia (ref) 269 50.3 1   1  
   Asia 64 75.3 2.91 (1.84, 4.62) 2.90 (1.57, 5.36)
   Other 85 59.0 1.58 (1.11, 2.24) 1.53 (0.99, 2.36)
Employed/studying at 6 months
   No (ref) 306 57.2 1   n/s  
   Yes 112 48.9 0.75 (0.56, 0.99) n/s  
Attended childbirth education
   Yes (ref) 364 58.8 1   1  
   No 54 37.2 0.45 (0.32, 0.63) 0.46 (0.29, 0.71)
Breastfeeding problems day 2–4
   No (ref) 178 57.6 1   n/s  
   Yes 240 52.8 0.73 (0.55, 0.96) n/s  
Rated midwife home visit extremely helpful for breastfeeding issues
   No (ref) 321 53.3 1   n/s  
   Yes 85 60.7 1.36 (0.93, 1.97) n/s  
   Did not have home visit 12 54.6 1.05 (0.45, 2.47) n/s  
Attended breastfeeding clinic
   Had breastfeeding problems but did not attend clinic (ref) 177 50.0 1   n/s  
   Had breastfeeding problems, did attend clinic 79 55.6 1.25 (0.85, 1.85) n/s  
   Had no bf problems 162 60.5 1.53 (1.11, 2.12) n/s  
Anxiety or depression problem in first 6 months (self-report)
   No (ref) 280 58.0 1   1  
   Yes 138 49.1 0.78 (0.59, 1.03) 0.64 (0.46, 0.90)
Relationship problems at all in first 6 months
   No (ref) 378 57.0 1   1  
   Yes 40 39.6 0.56 (0.38, 0.84) n/s  
Age at recruitment (continuous variable used)# - - 0.48 # (0.35, 1.84) 1.58 # (1.35, 1.86)
  1. * Number of women who gave that response who were continuing to breastfeed at 6 months
  2. ** Proportion of women who gave that response who were continuing to breastfeed at 6 months
  3. ***Adj: adjusted; bf: breastfeeding; n/s: not significant, not retained in model
  4. # ORs for age are the odds per five year increase in age